生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 543-556.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018214

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于粪便DNA及宏条形码技术的食肉动物快速调查及食性分析

邵昕宁1,2,宋大昭3,黄巧雯3,李晟1,2,姚蒙1,2,*()   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    2 北京大学生态研究中心, 北京 100871
    3中国猫科动物保护联盟, 北京 101011
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-03 接受日期:2019-01-25 出版日期:2019-05-20 发布日期:2019-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 姚蒙

Fast surveys and molecular diet analysis of carnivores based on fecal DNA and metabarcoding

Shao Xinning1,2,Song Dazhao3,Huang Qiaowen3,Li Sheng1,2,Yao Meng1,2,*()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Institute of Ecology, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    3 Chinese Felid Conservation Alliance, Beijing 101011
  • Received:2018-08-03 Accepted:2019-01-25 Online:2019-05-20 Published:2019-05-20
  • Contact: Yao Meng

摘要:

在陆地生态系统中, 大型食肉动物对于稳定食物网结构和生态系统功能有重要作用。在世界范围内, 由于栖息地丧失和破碎化、猎杀、人类活动干扰以及病原体的传播, 大型食肉动物生存正面临严重威胁, 多种食肉动物地理分布范围及种群数量大幅度缩减。如何有效保护大型食肉动物物种多样性及种群已经成为世界关注的焦点问题和保护生物学的重要研究方向。川西高原地处我国西南山地与青藏高原东缘交界地带, 属于世界生物多样性热点地区, 是世界大型食肉动物物种最丰富的地区之一, 而日益增强的人类活动可能会加剧对当地动植物资源的破坏, 进而威胁野生食肉动物的生存。获得准确的物种多样性信息及食肉动物食性数据有助于深入了解该地区生态系统结构及食物网关系, 对研究物种共存机制及生物多样性保护有重要意义。本研究通过从四川甘孜藏族自治州新龙县和石渠县野外采集的食肉动物粪便样品中提取DNA, 利用DNA条形码进行物种鉴定, 快速获得该地区食肉动物物种构成信息。38份粪便样品经鉴定来自于7种食肉动物, 分别为5种大型食肉动物(狼Canis lupus、棕熊Ursus arctos、豹Panthera pardus、雪豹P. unica、狗Canis lupus familiaris)和2种中小型食肉动物(豹猫Prionailurus bengalensis、赤狐Vulpes vulpes)。进一步利用高通量测序和宏条形码技术对7种食肉动物粪便中的食物DNA进行精准食性分析, 得到包含19种哺乳类、8种鸟类和1种鱼类共计28个不同的食物分子可操作分类单元(molecular operational taxonomic unit, MOTU)。结果显示, 狼、狗、棕熊最主要的食物来源为偶蹄目动物, 其中取食频率最高的物种为家牦牛(Bos grunniens); 而豹猫和赤狐食物中小型哺乳动物如啮齿目和兔形目占重要比例, 其中高原松田鼠(Neodon irene)和高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)被取食频率最高。豹和雪豹的食物分别为偶蹄目的中华斑羚(Naemorhedus griseus)和岩羊(Pseudois nayaur)。本研究显示了粪便DNA及宏条形码技术在食肉动物多样性快速调查及高通量精确食性分析中的应用前景, 并为此类研究提供了技术路线的有力借鉴。

关键词: 生物多样性编目, 兽类调查, 非损伤性取样, DNA条形码, 食物网

Abstract:

Large carnivores play an important role in the regulation of food-web structure and ecosystem functioning. However, large carnivores face serious threats that have caused declines in their populations and geographic ranges due to habitat loss and degradation, hunting, human disturbance and pathogen transmission. Conservation of large carnivore species richness and population size has become a pressing issue and an important research focus of conservation biology. The western Sichuan Plateau, located at the intersection of the mountains of southwest China and the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is a global biodiversity hotspot and has high carnivore species richness. However, increasing human activities may exacerbate the destruction of local flora and fauna, thereby threatening the survival of wild carnivores. Information on species composition and dietary habits can improve our understanding of the structure and function of the ecosystem and food-web relationships in the study area. In addition, species composition and dietary habits are of great significance for understanding multi-species coexistence mechanisms and preserving biodiversity. This study collected carnivore fecal samples from Xinlong and Shiqu counties in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. DNA was then extracted from the samples and the species was identified based on DNA sequences and DNA barcoding techniques. Seven carnivores were identified, including five large carnivores (Canis lupus, Ursus arctos, Panthera pardus, P. uncia and Canis lupus familiaris) and two medium and small-sized carnivores (Prionailurus bengalensis and Vulpes vulpes). Using fecal DNA, high-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding, we conducted diet analysis for the seven carnivores and found 28 different food molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), including 19 mammals, eight birds and one fish species. The predominant prey categories of wolves, dogs and brown bears were ungulates. The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) was the most frequently identified prey species. Small mammals such as rodents and lagomorphs accounted for a significant proportion in the diets of leopard cats and red foxes, The most frequent prey of this category of carnivore were the Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). In addition, leopards and snow leopards mainly fed on the Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), respectively. Our study highlights the utility of fecal DNA and metabarcoding technique in fast carnivore surveys and high-throughput diet analysis, and provides a technical reference and guidance for future biodiversity surveys and food-web studies.

Key words: biodiversity inventory, mammalian survey, non-invasive sampling, DNA barcoding, food-web