生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 33-41.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018171

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

古田山10种主要森林群落类型的α和β多样性格局及影响因素

翁昌露1, 2, 张田田2, 巫东豪2, 陈声文3, 金毅2, 任海保4, 于明坚2, 罗媛媛1, *()   

  1. 1 中国计量大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310018
    2 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
    3 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心, 浙江开化 324300
    4 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-20 接受日期:2019-01-31 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 罗媛媛 E-mail:yyluo@sohu.com
  • 基金项目:
    浙江省科技计划(2015C02016);科技部基础性工作专项专题(2015FY210200-17);国家自然科学基金(31361123001)

Drivers and patterns of α- and β-diversity in ten main forest community types in Gutianshan, eastern China

Weng Changlu1, 2, Zhang Tiantian2, Wu Donghao2, Chen Shengwen3, Jin Yi2, Ren Haibao4, Yu Mingjian2, Luo Yuanyuan1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences,China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018
    2 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    3 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    4 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2018-06-20 Accepted:2019-01-31 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Luo Yuanyuan E-mail:yyluo@sohu.com

古田山国家级自然保护区地处中亚热带, 地形复杂, 森林群落类型丰富。我们在保护区内10种主要森林群落类型中网格化布置并调查了79个20 m × 20 m样地, 分析了不同群落类型内及相互间的α (Shannon-Wiener指数)、β (Horn-Morisita相异性指数)多样性分布格局及其影响因素。结果表明: (1) α多样性主要受到群落类型、海拔和坡向的影响。α多样性在不同群落类型间差异显著, 并且随海拔升高、坡向从南到北, α多样性增大。(2) β多样性主要受到群落类型和海拔的影响, 受空间距离的影响不显著。不同群落类型间的β多样性显著大于同一群落类型内部, 并且随海拔升高β多样性增大。总体而言, 群落类型和海拔是古田山森林群落α和β多样性的主要影响因子, 表明生境过滤等机制对该区域的森林物种多样性格局起着主要作用。

关键词: 群落构建, 亚热带森林, α多样性;, β多样性;, 海拔, 坡向, 森林群落类型

Located in the subtropical zone of China, Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR) contains a variety of forest community types and is rugged in terrain. Here, we established 79 forest plots, each 20 m × 20 m in area, within the ten main community types of GNNR. Based on this, we analyzed the α- (Shannon- Wiener index) and β- (Horn-Morisita dissimilarity index) diversity patterns of and between these community types and their underlying driving factors. We found that: (1) Community type, elevation and aspect were the most important determinants of α-diversity. α-diversity showed significant differences between community types, and increased with elevation and northness. (2) Community type and elevation, but not spatial distance significantly affected β-diversity. β-diversity between community types was higher than within community type, and β-diversity also increased with increasing elevation. These results show that community type and elevation are the main influencing factors of the α- and β-diversity patterns in GNNR forests, and further suggest the importance of drivers, such as habitat filtering, on the assembly of GNNR forests.

Key words: community assembly, subtropical forests, α diversity;, β diversity;, elevation, aspect, community type

图1

79个森林群落样地分布图。EBLF、EDBLF、PTF、PTBLF、DBLF、PMF、PMBLF、CLP、CLBLF和COP的含义见表1。"

表1

各森林群落类型面积及样地个数、取样面积"

群落类型
Community type
群落面积
Community area (ha)
样地个数
Number of plots
取样面积
Sample area (ha)
常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) 4,778.9 24 0.96
常绿落叶阔叶混交林
Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLF)
444.1 11 0.44
黄山松林 Pinus taiwanensis forest (PTF) 14.3 2 0.08
黄山松针阔叶混交林
Pinus taiwanensis and broad-leaved trees mixed forest (PTBLF)
152.7 4 0.16
落叶阔叶林 Deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBLF) 18.5 2 0.08
马尾松林 Pinus massoniana forest (PMF) 217.8 4 0.16
马尾松针阔叶混交林
Pinus massoniana and broad-leaved trees mixed forest (PMBLF)
329.6 12 0.48
杉木林 Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation (CLP) 549.8 9 0.36
杉木针阔叶混交林
Cunninghamia lanceolata and broad-leaved trees mixed forest (CLBLF)
30 2 0.08
油茶林 Camellia oleifera plantation (COP) 1,516.1 9 0.36

图2

古田山国家级自然保护区不同类型群落α多样性的差异。柱形上方的英文字母不同表示柱形间有显著差异(P < 0.05, Holm法修正), 否则无显著差异。EBLF、EDBLF、PTF、PTBLF、DBLF、PMF、PMBLF、CLP、CLBLF和COP的含义见表1。"

图3

古田山国家级自然保护区森林群落α多样性(Shannon- Wiener指数)随海拔梯度的变化。圆圈为实际观测值; 实线为拟合值; 阴影为95%置信区间。"

图4

古田山国家级自然保护区森林群落α多样性(Shannon- Wiener指数)随南北向的变化。圆圈为实际观测值; 实线为拟合值; 阴影为95%置信区间。"

表2

地形和群落类型对古田山国家级自然保护区森林群落α多样性(Shannon-Wiener指数)影响的方差分析结果"

自由度
Degree of
freedom
总方差
Total variance
均方差
Mean
variance
F P
海拔 Elevation 1 15.716 15.716 91.393 < 0.001
坡度 Slope 1 0.550 0.550 3.200 0.078
东西向 East-west 1 0.414 0.414 2.407 0.126
南北向
South-north
1 0.828 0.828 4.817 0.032
群落类型
Community type
9 42.872 4.764 27.702 < 0.001
残差 Residuals 65 11.177 0.172

图5

古田山国家级自然保护区不同类型群落物种组成的非度量多维尺度分析排序结果。EBLF、EDBLF、PTF、PTBLF、DBLF、PMF、PMBLF、CLP、CLBLF和COP的含义见表1。"

图6

同种群落类型内部和不同群落类型间β多样性(Horn-Morisita相异性指数)的比较。柱形图上方的英文字母不同表示柱形间有显著差异(P < 0.05, t-检验), 否则无显著差异。"

图7

古田山国家级自然保护区森林群落β多样性(Horn-Morisita相异性指数)随海拔梯度的变化。圆点为实际观测值; 实线为拟合值; 阴影为95%置信区间。"

表3

空间距离、地形和群落类型对古田山国家级自然保护区森林群落β多样性(Horn-Morisita指数)的影响(R2 = 0.262)"

效应 Effect t P
空间距离 Spatial distance 0.002 1.497 0.415
海拔 Elevation 0.066 15.148 0.001
坡度 Slope -0.006 -1.635 0.391
南北向 North-South 0.0052 1.370 0.347
东西向 East-West 0.0035 0.836 0.635
群落类型 Community type 0.2393 25.415 0.001
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[ 郑江坤, 魏天兴, 郑路坤, 大林直, 陈致富, 赵健, 朱文德, 孙慧 ( 2009) 坡面尺度上地貌对α生物多样性的影响. 生态环境学报, 18, 2254-2259.]
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