生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1249-1254.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018111

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

推动中国企业参与《生物多样性公约》全球伙伴关系的机制建设

赵阳1, 温源远1,2,*(), 杨礼荣1, 李宏涛1   

  1. 1 生态环境部环境保护对外合作中心, 北京 100035
    2 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-12 接受日期:2018-08-14 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2019-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 温源远
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

Learning from international experience to promote the Global Partnership between Business and Biodiversity (GPBB) in China

Yang Zhao1, Yuanyuan Wen1,2,*(), Lirong Yang1, Hongtao Li1   

  1. 1 Foreign Economic Corporation Office, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    2 School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2018-04-12 Accepted:2018-08-14 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2019-01-08
  • Contact: Wen Yuanyuan
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

党的十九大首次提出了中国要成为全球生态文明建设引领者的新要求。生物多样性保护是中国生态文明建设和全球生态文明建设的重要内容, 也是构建人与自然生命共同体、人类命运共同体、清洁美丽世界的集中体现。本文系统总结了推动《生物多样性公约》倡导的“企业与生物多样性全球伙伴关系” (GPBB)的主要国际经验, 提出了中国推动落实“中国企业与生物多样性伙伴关系”倡议(简称CBBP)的政策建议, 为中国政府更好地引导企业参与, 撬动社会资源合力加强生物多样性保护提供参考。通过分析德国、印度、加拿大、秘鲁、澳大利亚、南非、日本和韩国构建企业参与GPBB的实践, 发现各国经验主要有以下特点: (1)政府作用重要且方式多样, 或提供管理、或提供资金或实物等; (2)组织方式多样, 常见的为组建跨部门的决策机构并下设秘书组; (3)成员加入, 一般需要签署协约, 有的偏重特定行业, 有的重视机构会员; (4)在服务上, 政府一般提供法律政策解读、知识信息传播、政策指引等服务; (5)在资金来源上, 有的主要靠缴纳会费, 有的包括实物捐赠、志愿服务、PPP (公私合营)项目合作等方式。各国经验的主要启示有: (1)根据论坛会议沟通和实际工作交流, 大量企业表现出参与生物多样性伙伴关系倡议的积极意愿; (2)推动企业参与的国际资源网络已基本建立; (3)受限于规模和资金, 绝大多数企业的参与需要本国政府更为有力的引导和支持。2015年, 中国正式加入GPBB。截至目前, 虽然中国已开展了许多推动GPBB的相关工作, 但仍然存在和面临许多问题与挑战: (1)由于中国倡议CBBP相关文件仍未通过审批, 因此, 尽管根据调研已有许多企业非常有意愿成为中国伙伴关系成员单位, 但仍无章可循, 无法加入; (2)中国尚未建立健全的推动CBBP倡议行动的组织模式和资金机制; (3)《生物多样性公约》第15次缔约方大会将于2020年在北京召开, 这对中国在促进CBBP的管理运行也提出更高和更为紧迫的要求。对此, 本文建议CBBP倡议可实施“两步走”战略: (1)成立并发起CBBP联盟倡议; (2)加大国际公约建设和国家履约谈判支持。

关键词: 生物多样性保护, 国际经验, 全球伙伴关系, 生物多样性公约, 企业参与

Abstract:

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward for the first time a new requirement that China should spearhead the construction of ecological civilization on global scale, of which biodiversity protection is an integral part. This paper systematically summarizes the major international experiences in promoting the Global Partnership for Business and Biodiversity (GPBB) advocated by the Convention on Biological Diversity, and gives policy proposals for China to promote the GPBB (or China Business and Biodiversity Partnership, CBBP). By analyzing GPBB practices in Germany, India, Canada, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Japan and South Korea, we find the main experience of these countries as follows: (1) the governments have important and varied roles, including management and providing funds or goods; (2) the patterns of organization are diverse, but usually they set up cross department decision-making bodies and secretarial offices; (3) membership generally requires signing agreements; some agreements focus on specific industries, some accord importance to institutional members; (4) the government generally provides legal and policy interpretation, knowledge and information dissemination, policy guidance and other services; (5) regarding funding, some mainly rely on the collection of membership dues while others rely on donations in kind or voluntary service, and some rely on PPP projects. We also draw the following conclusions: (1) a large number of enterprises are motivated and willing to participate in the Biodiversity Partnership Initiative; (2) the international resource network for promoting enterprise participation has been established; (3) limited by scale and capital, the participation of the vast enterprises requires more guidance and support of government. In 2015, China formally joined the GPBB. Although China has carried out several related activities to promote the GPBB, it still faces many challenges. First of all, the relevant documents have not been approved. Therefore, although many enterprises are willing to partner with China, there is a need to establish rules to follow. Secondly, China has not yet established a sound organizational mode and financial mechanism to promote GPBB. Finally, the 15th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will be held in Beijing in 2020, which creates an urgent need to manage China’s partnership for business and biodiversity. In this regard, this paper suggests that the China Business and Biodiversity Partnership (CBBP) initiative should implement the two step strategy: (1) establish and launch the CBBP alliance initiative, and (2) increase the support of international conventions and state performance negotiations.

Key words: biodiversity, international experience, global partnership, Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), business participation