生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1051-1059.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018086

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陆地生态系统中马陆的生态功能

王梦茹, 傅声雷, 徐海翔, 王美娜, 时雷雷*()   

  1. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 河南开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-26 接受日期:2018-07-17 出版日期:2018-10-20 发布日期:2019-01-06
  • 通讯作者: 时雷雷
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31700416, 31600434)

Ecological functions of millipedes in the terrestrial ecosystem

Mengru Wang, Shenglei Fu, Haixiang Xu, Meina Wang, Leilei Shi*()   

  1. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004
  • Received:2018-03-26 Accepted:2018-07-17 Online:2018-10-20 Published:2019-01-06
  • Contact: Shi Leilei
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

马陆是陆地生态系统中物种多样性极高的大型土壤无脊椎动物类群。作为营腐生动物, 马陆在陆地生态系统中具有不可替代的重要功能。通过大量取食及随后的肠道过程, 马陆在很大程度上决定着陆地生态系统凋落物的破碎、转化和分解过程, 从而驱动碳和关键养分元素的循环周转。然而, 目前对马陆生态功能的研究还非常有限, 远远落后于其他土壤动物类群(如蚯蚓等)。本文初步总结了马陆的生态功能: (1)通过破碎、取食凋落物来加速凋落物的分解。马陆偏好取食半分解的凋落物, 其同化效率受到凋落物来源、温度和凋落物中微生物含量的影响。(2)主要通过取食和排泄等活动影响养分循环。但对于马陆如何影响土壤碳循环, 存在两种不同的观点: 一是马陆粪球的分解速率比凋落物更快, 加速了碳的循环; 二是马陆粪球更难分解, 有助于碳的固存和稳定。马陆破碎凋落物后, 凋落物释放氮素进入土壤。此外, 马陆的活动也影响土壤磷的循环, 提高土壤中有效磷的含量。(3)调控微生物特性, 与蚯蚓也有互作关系。通过以上三个方面的总结, 展望了未来马陆的主要研究方向, 以期引起更多思考和研究。

关键词: 马陆, 土壤动物, 陆地生态系统, 生态功能

Abstract:

Millipedes (Diplopoda) are a highly diverse group of soil invertebrates and play vital roles in terrestrial ecosystems. Millipedes contribute to the cycling of carbon and nutrients through their feeding activities and gut processes that help decompose litter. However, the functions of millipedes have been poorly researched compared to other groups of soil animals such as earthworms. Here, we briefly summarize the ecological functions of millipedes: Millipedes can fragment, consume and transform litter to accelerate its decomposition. Millipedes prefer large amounts of semi-decomposed litter and the efficiency of millipedes in assimilating litter can vary with litter source, temperature and microbial biomass in the litter. Millipedes can regulate the cycling of soil carbon and other key nutrients through feeding and excretion activities. Nitrogen enters to the soil when litter is fragmented by millipedes, but there are different views on how millipedes affect the soil carbon cycle. Millipede faeces decompose more rapidly than the pre-ingested litter. Such a transformation of litters to faeces would accelerate carbon cycling. However, other studies have suggested a relatively low decomposition rate of millipede faeces when compared with un-ingested litter, which could contribute to soil carbon sequestration and stabilization. In addition, the survival of millipedes affects soil phosphorus cycle. They can increase the content of available phosphorus in soil. Millipedes interact with other soil animals such as earthworms and also can regulate the abundances of soil microorganisms. Our review indicates that further studies are required to better understand and document the role of millipedes in ecosystem functioning.

Key words: millipede, soil fauna, terrestrial ecosystem, ecological functions