生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (8): 850-861.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018053

• • 上一篇    下一篇

红外相机技术在物种监测中的应用及数据挖掘

刘雪华1, *(), 武鹏峰2, 何祥博3, 赵翔宇1   

  1. 1 清华大学环境学院生态学教研所, 北京 100084
    2 沈阳师范大学生命科学学院, 沈阳 110034
    3 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区, 陕西佛坪 723400
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-11 接受日期:2018-07-13 出版日期:2018-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘雪华 E-mail:xuehua-hjx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41271194)

Application and data mining of infra-red camera in the monitoring of species

Xuehua Liu1, *(), Pengfeng Wu2, Xiangbo He3, Xiangyu Zhao1   

  1. 1 Division of Ecology, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    2 College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034
    3 Foping National Natural Reserve, Foping, Shaanxi 723400
  • Received:2018-02-11 Accepted:2018-07-13 Online:2018-08-20
  • Contact: Liu Xuehua E-mail:xuehua-hjx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

由于濒危物种数量稀少以及大多数野生动物对人类活动敏感, 增加了传统调查的难度。众所周知,红外相机在野生动物调查研究中具有天然优势; 然而随着红外相机技术的广泛推广应用及数据采集量的不断加大, 科研人员也面临了一系列关于红外相机监测及后续数据处理中出现的问题。本文详细阐述了红外相机数据管理和利用方面存在的3个关键问题: 数据管理缺乏规范化、数据网络缺乏一体化、数据获取缺乏标准化。同时以秦岭、卧龙等地的一些研究为主体, 列举分析了红外相机照片后续数据挖掘中8个方面的内容, 即兽类的个体识别、物种时间活动格局、物种空间活动格局、偶见物种信息利用、物种行为活动、繁殖信息、疾病情况、人为干扰。这些信息的有效利用可为野生动物及生物多样性的保护、管理提供一定科学支撑。

关键词: 红外相机, 监测, 数据挖掘, 生物多样性, 野生动物, 保护

Wildlife population is low and most of them are very sensitive to human disturbing, which makes traditional survey difficult. As known, infra-red camera technology has many advantages in wildlife study. However, with its wide application and increased data amount, researchers are facing some problems concerning infra-red camera monitoring and later data processing and analyzing. This paper describes in details three key problems on infra-red camera data management and use, such as lacking standardization, integration and normalization. The present paper also lists and analyzes eight aspects about photo data mining, based on researches carried out in the Qinling Mountains, Wolong Nature Reserve, etc. It involves individual recognition, temporal/spatial activity pattern, information-extracting of occasional species, behavior and reproduction, disease situation and interference by humans. If all this information can be used effectively, we hope to provide scientific support at some extent on wildlife and biodiversity conservation and management in future.

Key words: infra-red camera, monitoring, data mining, biodiversity, wildlife, conservation

图1

偶见物种的红外相机照片(清华大学刘雪华提供)。(a)金钱豹(2015-10-23秋季秦岭梁落叶松林); (b)金钱豹(2015-07-17夏季光头山天然林); (c)金猫(2016-05-26长青云杉林山脊); (d)大灵猫(2010-05-20观音山落叶松林); (e)黄腹鼬(2016-07-02佛坪保护区光头山)"

图2

红外相机捕捉到的野生动物行为(a-c和e-f由清华大学刘雪华提供, d由观音山保护区和清华大学共同提供)。(a)大熊猫做气味标记(2011-04-05观音山西沟); (b)大熊猫晒太阳(2015-04-02佛坪光头山); (c)野猪小崽吃奶(2015-06-26长青落叶松林); (d)野猪拖拉羚牛尸体(2014-03-01观音山保护区); (e)羚牛取食竹子(2011-04-22观音山保护区); (f)羚牛交配行为(2014-08-07佛坪光头山)"

图3

红外相机获取的野生动物种群繁殖信息(清华大学刘雪华提供)。(a)羚牛亚成体和幼体(2011-07-14佛坪观音山); (b)羚牛群(2014-04-29佛坪观音山); (c)野猪小种群(2015-10-29佛坪保护区东沟); (d)金丝猴群(2014-12-03佛坪观音山寸沟); (e)黑熊家庭(2013-10-01佛坪东沟); (f)黑熊母子(2014-09-18佛坪西河跃湾沟)"

图4

红外相机照片拍到的野生动物疾病(清华大学刘雪华提供照片)。(a)腿部长肿瘤的羚牛(2013-11-02佛坪光头山); (b)因皮癣脱毛的斑羚(2013-05-15佛坪观音山)"

图5

人为活动对野生动物的干扰(清华大学刘雪华提供照片)。(a)道路和采药影响(2014-08-29佛坪观音山); (b)道路和旅游影响(2016-01-24佛坪观音山); (c)样绳对小野猪的影响(2015-10-29佛坪东沟); (d)样绳对羚牛的影响(2014-10-26佛坪东沟)"

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