生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 185-190.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017340

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

羌塘、可可西里无人区野牦牛种群数量和分布现状

胡一鸣1, 2, 3#, 李玮琪2, 3#, 蒋志刚2, 3, 刘务林4, 梁健超1, 林宜舟5, 黄志文1, 覃海华1, 金崑6, *(), 胡慧建1, *()   

  1. 1 .广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室, 广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室, 广州 510260
    2 .中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    3 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4.西藏自治区林业调查规划研究院, 拉萨 850000
    5 .广州翼林生态监测有限公司, 广州 510075
    6.中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-09 接受日期:2018-02-20 出版日期:2018-04-02
  • 通讯作者: 金崑,胡慧建 E-mail:jk2002@caf.ac.cn;13922339577@139.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31400361)、科技基础性专项(2013FY110300)、环境保护部生物多样性专项、广东省省级科技计划项目(2013B061800042)

A wild yak survey in Chang Tang of Tibet Autonomous Region and Hoh Xil of Qinghai Province

Yiming Hu1, 2, 3#, Weiqi Li2, 3#, Zhigang Jiang2, 3, Wulin Liu4, Jianchao Liang1, Yizhou Lin5, Zhiwen Huang1, Haihua Qin1, Kun Jin6, *(), Huijian Hu1, *()   

  1. 1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    2 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Forestry Inventory and Planning Institute of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa 850000
    5 Guangzhou Yilin Ecological Monitoring Limited Company, Guangzhou 510075
    6 Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2017-12-09 Accepted:2018-02-20 Online:2018-04-02
  • Contact: Jin Kun,Hu Huijian E-mail:jk2002@caf.ac.cn;13922339577@139.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

野牦牛(Bos grunniens)是青藏高原特有的大型有蹄类动物, 主要分布在西藏羌塘, 青海可可西里、三江源, 新疆阿尔金山等地的高海拔生境。我们于2012-2014年在西藏羌塘和青海可可西里对野牦牛进行了较为全面的实地调查, 并且估算西藏羌塘地区野牦牛种群在11,222-21,072头之间, 可可西里野牦牛种群数量在659-1,793头之间。据本次野外调查和历史文献资料显示, 自20世纪90年代起, 中国野牦牛种群数量逐年增长, 但是其分布区面积却逐步缩减, 目前仅分布在几个相对孤立且远离人类居住地的高寒区域。随着全球气候变化与青藏高原人类活动的加强,野牦牛的生存现状依然严峻, 我们仍需加强对青藏高原特有物种的保护。

关键词: Bos grunniens, 青藏高原, 种群数量, 分布, 保护

The wild yak (Bos grunniens), which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, mainly distributed in Chang Tang region of Tibet, Hoh Xil and Sanjiangyuan regions of Qinghai and Altun Mountain of Xinjiang. In this study, we used field data and data from the published literatures to estimate the population of wild yaks as well as their distribution in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the adjacent areas in China. Field surveys were conducted in Chang Tang of Tibet, Hoh Xil of Qinghai between 2012 and 2014. According to our field survey, there were 11,222-21,072 wild yaks in Chang Tang of Tibet, and 659-1,793 in Hoh Xil of Qinghai. Although our results indicate that the population of wild yak has increased since 1990s, the distribution area of wild yak is shrinking. With the changing of the global climate and the intensifying of human activities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, stronger actions to protect the endemic species in this area are still needed.

Key words: Bos grunniens, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, population, distribution, conservation

表1

中国野牦牛分布区域、分布密度及种群数量——调查数据"

省份 Province 分布区 Distribution 经纬度 Latitude & longitude 面积 Area (km2) 密度 Density (inds./km2) 种群数量 Population size
西藏 Tibet 阿里 Ngari 32°10°-36°32°N, 79°42°-92°05°E 134,000 0.014 ± 0.005 1,859 ± 713
那曲 Nagchu 105,000 0.136 ± 0.040 14,288 ± 4,212
青海 Qinghai 可可西里 Hoh Xil 34.19°-36.16° N , 89.25°-94.05° E 45,000 0.027 ± 0.0126 1,226 ± 567

表2

中国野牦牛分布区域、分布密度及种群数量——文献数据"

省份
Province
分布区
Distribution
经纬度
Locality
面积
Area (km2)
密度 Density
(inds./km2)
种群数量
Population size
数据来源
Sources
西藏 Tibet 仲巴 Zhongba 29°09°-31°48° N, 82°00°-84°45° E 12,368 0.065 810±160 Shi et al, 2016
昂仁措勤 Angrencuoqin 29°10°-31°00° N,
85°09°-87°45° E
15,617 0.021 314±80 Shi et al, 2016
青海 Qinghai 三江源
The Three River Source region
31°39°-36°12° N,
89°45°-102°2° E
65,000 0.032 2,087 Shi et al, 2016
祁连山-疏勒南山
Qilian Mountain-Shulenan Mountain
38°28°N, 97°45° E 45,000 0.009 392 Shi et al, 2016
新疆 Xinjiang 阿尔金山
Altun Mountains
36°00°-37°49° N
87°10°-91°18° E
45,000 0.33±0.094 14,850±4,227 路飞英等, 2015
甘肃 Gansu 祁连山-肃南, 肃北
Qilian Mountain-northern and southern Gansu
32°11°-42°57° N,
92°13°-108°46° E
454,430 130 Shi et al, 2016

图1

中国野牦牛分布范围示意图"

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