生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 601-610.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017339

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

韭山列岛自然保护区虾类优势种生态位

徐开达, 卢衎尔*(), 卢占晖, 戴乾   

  1. 浙江省海洋水产研究所, 浙江舟山 316021
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-28 接受日期:2018-03-07 出版日期:2018-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 卢衎尔 E-mail:kanerpersonal@foxmail.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31702346)和浙江省科技计划项目(2016F10003, 2016F30018, 2017C32031)

Ecological niche analysis of dominant shrimp species in the Jiushan Islands Marine Nature Reserve

Kaida Xu, Kaner Lu*(), Zhanhui Lu, Qian Dai   

  1. Marine Fisheries Research Institute of Zhejiang, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316021
  • Received:2017-12-28 Accepted:2018-03-07 Online:2018-06-20
  • Contact: Lu Kaner E-mail:kanerpersonal@foxmail.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

根据韭山列岛自然保护区2015年11月, 2016年2月、5月、8月的调查资料, 运用相对重要性指数(index of relative importance, IRI)、生态位宽度以及生态位重叠指数等生态指标, 对调查海域的优势种虾类进行生态位特征分析, 以了解该海域内虾类组成及优势种间的关系。结果表明, 保护区共调查到虾类16种, 隶属8科12属, 均属暖温种或暖水种, 其中优势种(IRI > 500)有7种, 隶属于4科5属; 虾类相对资源量呈春秋季高, 夏冬季低的季节性分布特征。除脊尾白虾(Exopalaemon carinicauda)外, 优势种的时空生态位宽度值(时间生态位宽度与空间生态位宽度的乘积)均大于非优势种。日本鼓虾(Alpheus japonicus)和细巧仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis tenella)的时空二维生态位重叠值最大, 表明其对资源的利用具有相似性; 安氏白虾(Exopalaemon annandalei)和哈氏仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis hardwickii)的时空生态位重叠值最小, 说明二者相关性低。通过计算得知, 相对重要性指数(IRI)与生态位宽度对物种重要性排序结果有异: 时空生态位宽度值最大的为葛氏长臂虾(Palaemon gravieri), 而IRI值最高的为日本鼓虾。与相对重要性指数(IRI)相比, 生态位宽度指数不仅能反映物种对资源的利用能力, 还能反映物种分布是否均匀, 但这两者均不能反映生物量的多少。

关键词: 韭山列岛自然保护区, 虾类组成, 生态位宽度, 生态位重叠, 相对重要性指数

The broad aim of our study was to understand shrimp communities and the relationship between dominant species by conducting ecological niche analyses. We collected data with respect to quantities, biomass and species identification on shrimps from the Jiushan Islands Marine Nature Reserve in November 2015 and again in February, May and August of 2016. Using indices such as the index of relative importance (IRI), niche breadth and niche overlap, we analyzed the ecological niche of dominant shrimp species. Finally, we compared niche breadth to understand the relative resource utilization capacity of different shrimp species in the community and also identify whether shrimp species are evenly distributed across the sampling sites/seasons. We used spatio-temporal niche breadth which is a comprehensive descriptor of resource utilization and the product of temporal and spatial niche breadth. In total, we captured 16 warm-temperate and warm-water species in the marine reserve, belonging to 8 families and 12 genera. Seven dominant shrimp species (IRI > 500) were identified, belonging to four families and five genera. Results showed that relative shrimp resources varied with season and further revealed that shrimp biomass in spring and autumn were higher compared to summer and winter. Spatio-temporal niche breadth of all dominant species (except Exopalaemon carinicauda) was higher than the other species. The spatio-temporal niche overlap value between Alpheus japonicus and Parapenaeopsis tenella was the highest, indicating that these two species had highly similar resources utilization. On the other hand, Exopalaemon annandalei and Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, were least similar in their resource utilization. The importance ranking results calculated using IRI and niche breadth were not identical: Palaemon gravieri had the highest spatio-temporal niche breadth value, yet Alpheus japonicus had the highest IRI value. We note however that the indices used cannot reflect biomass of the species.

Key words: Jiushan Islands Marine Nature Reserve, shrimp composition, niche breadth, niche overlap, index of relative importance (IRI)

图1

研究海域及采样站位示意图(采样站位设置在保护区核心范围附近)"

表1

2015-2016年韭山列岛自然保护区调查海域虾类组成"

科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species 适温性
Optimum
temperature
出现月份
Occurrence
相对重要性指数
Index of relative
importance (IRI)
对虾科 Penaeidae 新对虾属 Metapenaeus 周氏新对虾 Metapenaeus joyneri WW ○△▲ 99.33
明对虾属 Fennerpenaeus 长毛明对虾 Fenneropenaeus penicillatus WW ○△▲ 7.75
赤虾属 Metapenaeopsis 戴氏赤虾 Metapenaeopsis dalei WT ○●△▲ 4.62
仿对虾属 Parapenaeopsis 细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella WT ○●△▲ 1,002.58
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii WW ○●△▲ 2,204.78
长臂虾科 Palaemonidae 白虾属 Exopalaemon 安氏白虾 Exopalaemon annandalei WT ○●△▲ 3,944.06
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda WT ○△▲ 752.25
长臂虾属 Palaemon 葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri WT ○●△▲ 3,008.04
巨指长臂虾 Palaemon macrodactylus WT ●△▲ 4.15
鼓虾科 Alpheidae 鼓虾属 Alpheus 日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus WT △▲ 5,370.43
鲜明鼓虾 Alpheus distinguendus WW ○●△▲ 374.41
藻虾科 Hippolytidae 鞭腕虾属 Lysmata Risso 鞭腕虾 Lysmata vittata WW ●▲ 4.4
樱虾科 Sergestidae 毛虾属 Acetes 中国毛虾 Acetes chinensis WW 123.28
异指虾科 Processidae 异指虾属 Processa 日本异指虾 Processa japonica WW △▲ 0.89
管鞭虾科 Solenoceridae 管鞭虾属 Solenocera 中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis WW ●▲ 2,183.67
玻璃虾科 Pasiphaeidae 细螯虾属 Leptochela 细螯虾 Leptochela gracilis WW ●▲ 104.97

图2

调查海域虾类相对资源量随季节的变化(95%置信区间)"

表2

优势种的时间、空间以及时空二维生态位宽度对比"

物种
Species
空间生态位宽度
Spatial niche
breadth (Bi-space)
时间生态位宽度
Temporal niche
breadth (Bi-time)
时空二维生态位宽度
Spatio-temporal
niche breadth (Bi)
安氏白虾 Exopalaemon annandalei 4.49 0.67 3.03
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 4.54 1.04 4.71
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 2.42 0.60 1.46
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 1.40 0.31 0.43
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus 5.18 0.73 3.76
细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella 2.51 0.64 1.61
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 3.14 0.75 2.35

表3

韭山列岛自然保护区优势种间空间生态位(对角线以下)和时间生态位(对角线以上)重叠值"

安氏白虾
Exopalaemon
annandalei
葛氏长臂虾
Palaemon
gravieri
哈氏仿对虾
Parapenaeopsis
hardwickii
脊尾白虾
Exopalaemon
carinicauda
日本鼓虾
Alpheus
japonicus
细巧仿对虾
Parapenaeopsis
tenella
中华管鞭虾
Solenocera
crassicornis
安氏白虾 Exopalaemon annandalei 0.65 0.03 0.72 0.24 0.38 0.14
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 0.67 0.75 0.69 0.24 0.52 0.82
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 0.50 0.80 0.13 0.11 0.39 0.99
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 0.54 0.85 0.53 0.37 0.46 0.21
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus 0.61 0.90 0.58 0.89 0.95 0.08
细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella 0.65 0.72 0.58 0.51 0.77 0.37
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 0.58 0.83 0.90 0.65 0.71 0.56

表4

优势种间时空二维生态位重叠值"

安氏白虾
Exopalaemon
annandalei
葛氏长臂虾
Palaemon
gravieri
哈氏仿对虾
Parapenaeopsis
hardwickii
脊尾白虾
Exopalaemon
carinicauda
日本鼓虾
Alpheus
japonicus
细巧仿对虾
Parapenaeopsis
tenella
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 0.43
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 0.02 0.60
脊尾白虾 Exopalaemon carinicauda 0.38 0.58 0.07
日本鼓虾 Alpheus japonicus 0.14 0.22 0.07 0.33
细巧仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis tenella 0.25 0.38 0.22 0.24 0.73
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 0.08 0.68 0.89 0.14 0.06 0.21

图3

调查区域各季节优势种虾类网获捕获重量变化"

图4

优势种虾类的时间、空间生态位宽度, 时空生态位宽度以及相对重要性指数的比较"

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