生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (5): 433-444.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017334

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

探讨监测传粉者的方法

童泽宇1, 徐环李2, 黄双全1, *()   

  1. 1 华中师范大学生命科学学院进化与生态学研究所, 武汉 430079
    2 中国农业大学植保学院昆虫学系, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-24 接受日期:2018-02-09 出版日期:2018-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄双全 E-mail:hsq@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31730012、U1402267)、博士后创新人才支持计划(BX201600059)和中国博士后科学基金面上资助项目(2017M610482)

Examining methodologies of pollinator detection in the field

Zeyu Tong1, Huanli Xu2, Shuangquan Huang1, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Evolution and Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
    2 Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2017-12-24 Accepted:2018-02-09 Online:2018-05-20
  • Contact: Huang Shuangquan E-mail:hsq@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

种子植物的有性生殖依赖于花粉传递, 传粉者是花粉传递的媒介。传粉者为野生植物和农作物提供的传粉服务, 是我们绿色星球最重要的生态过程之一, 在维持生物多样性和农作物生产方面具有重要作用。农业集约化、生境破碎、全球气候变暖等因素加剧了传粉者衰减和灭绝的风险, 对生态系统的功能和农业生产造成了不利影响。为了维系植物与传粉者生态互作关系的稳定性, 人们建立了一系列从局部地区到国际、由普通民众到科研人员参与的传粉者监测项目, 以期掌握传粉生态系统的状况和发展趋势, 为自然和农业生态系统的健康提供预警和反馈。本文强调了监测传粉者的首要前提条件, 即正确区分传粉者和访花者; 总结了监测传粉者的直接和间接方法, 包括群落水平的直接观察监测, 以及利用关联数据进行间接推断与调查; 介绍了具有潜力的由大众参与的公众监测项目。针对7种常见传粉者类群, 讨论了可行的适用于各类群的监测方法, 为监测拓展到更多的传粉者类群提供了可能。期望能为生物多样性的保护、传粉者动态的精准监测提供建议与参考。

关键词: 传粉者, 传粉者监测, 生物保护, 生物多样性, 植物-传粉者相互作用

Sexual reproduction of seed plants depends largely on pollen transfer. The pollination service provided by pollinators for wild plants and managed crops is one of the most crucial ecological processes on our planet, as it plays an essential role in sustaining biodiversity and crop production. Factors such as agricultural intensification, habitat fragmentation, and global climate change have increased the risk of pollinator decline and extinction, which would have detrimental effects on ecological function and agricultural production. To maintain the stability of ecological interactions between plants and pollinators, a series of pollinator monitoring schemes have been established, ranging from the regional to international scale. Participants including volunteer citizens and professional scientists have obtained the status and trends of pollination systems, thereby helping to provide early alerts and feedbacks for the risk of natural and agricultural ecological systems. In this view examining the methodologies of pollinator monitoring, we emphasize that it is necessary to distinguish pollinators from floral visitors. A diversity of direct and indirect methods for monitoring pollinators is summarized for seven types of animals (including Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Aves, Mammalia, and Lacertilia, respectively). A simple monitoring program that includes volunteer participation is also recommended. Commonly used field monitoring strategies for seven groups of pollinators would be useful as references for monitoring additional pollinator faunas. The pros and cons of these diverse methods for protecting and monitoring pollinators are discussed, which is useful for the long-term detection of pollinator dynamics.

Key words: pollinator, pollinator monitoring, biological protection, biodiversity, plant-pollinator interactions

图1

访花者的行为及为推断其是否为传粉者而采取的不同实验方法。(a)两只欺骗性的小蜂(Eupristina sp.)试图进入高山榕(Ficus altissima)的隐头花序, 这类蜂是非传粉小蜂。(b)一种淡脉隧蜂(Lasioglossum sp.)采集宝兴百合(Lilium duchartrei)的花粉, 由于虫体大小远小于花部雌雄器官之间的距离, 这类隧蜂是盗粉者, 虫体不接触柱头而不起传粉作用。(c)为检验何种昆虫可能是西藏杓兰(Cypripedium tibeticum)的传粉者, 实验者抓捕不同体型的昆虫放入囊状的下唇中, 如果爬出的昆虫能带走西藏杓兰的花粉块, 则推断其为可能的有效传粉者。(d)红腹熊蜂(Bombus friseanus)在四川头花马先蒿(Pedicularis cephalanta)上收集花粉, 注意柱头接触虫体的部位; 被熊蜂收集到花粉筐中的花粉不能用于传粉。(e)图片显示的是落置在柳兰(Chamerion angustifolium)柱头上的蛾类昆虫鳞片, 通过显微镜观察柱头是否有鳞片落置, 可以间接推断夜间的蛾类访花。(f)为检验麻点杜鹃(Rhododendron clementinae)是否有鸟类传粉者, 可将金属丝制成的笼子安置在花序外, 隔离鸟类访花但允许昆虫访问, 注意照片中有一只熊蜂在访花。"

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