生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 333-345.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017251

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江流域农作物起源及其与生物多样性特征的关联

赵耀1, 陈家宽1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所, 南昌 330031
    2 复旦大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-14 接受日期:2018-02-06 出版日期:2018-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈家宽 E-mail:jkchen@fudan.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学青年基金(31600293)

The origin of crops in the Yangtze River Basin and its relevance for biodiversity

Yao Zhao1, Jiakuan Chen1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-09-14 Accepted:2018-02-06 Online:2018-04-20
  • Contact: Chen Jiakuan E-mail:jkchen@fudan.edu.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

长江流域的农耕文明是中华文明的重要组成部分。作为世界著名的农作物起源中心之一, 长江流域拥有丰富的生物多样性, 孕育了大量的栽培植物。本文梳理了起源于长江流域的农作物的资料以及新石器时代文化遗址的植物遗存信息; 结合对长江流域的自然环境特征与全新世以来植被变化的总结, 尝试厘清长江流域对植物资源利用的动态变化, 探讨本地栽培植物与生物多样性的关联。结果表明长江流域农耕文明以稻作为最主要的生产方式, 驯化了大量果树与水生蔬菜, 反映出对本地亚热带常绿阔叶林与湿地的依赖与适应。与其他流域相比, 长江流域具有相对优越的生态要素配置, 其驯化作物类型表现出典型的亚热带湿润森林植被区特征。研究长江流域农作物驯化相关的自然与人类因素, 有助于我们更好地把握长江流域农耕文明的起源。本文不但可为长江流域植物遗传资源的保护与开发提供参考, 而且对于推进长江流域的生态文明建设和可持续发展具有指导作用。

关键词: 长江流域, 农作物, 农耕文明, 植被, 气候, 生物多样性

The agricultural civilization that originated in the Yangtze River Basin is an important part of Chinese civilization. Being one of the world-famous crop origin centers, the Yangtze River Basin is rich in biodiversity, and has bred many cultivated plants. This review has collected data of crops that originated in the Yangtze River Basin and information of plant remains found in Neolithic archaeological sites. By summarizing the environmental features and tracking the changes of vegetation since the Holocene in the Yangtze River Basin, we attempt to dissect the dynamics of plant use in this area and investigate the relationship between local cultivated plants and biodiversity. Our results indicate the agricultural civilization in the Yangtze River Basin greatly relied on rice production, and domesticated a large amount of fruit and aquatic vegetable crops, which reflects the adaptation and dependence to local subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and wetlands. When compared to other basins, the Yangtze River Basin is advantageous in allocation of ecological factors, and the characteristic of domesticated crops shows a typical feature of subtropical humid forest vegetation areas. Studying the natural and human factors related to crop domestication can help us to better understand the origin of agriculture civilization in the Yangtze River Basin. This work not only provides a reference for the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources, but also plays a guiding role in promoting the construction of ecological civilization and sustainable development in the Yangtze River Basin.

Key words: Yangtze River Basin, crop, agricultural civilization, vegetation, climate, biodiversity

图1

长江流域起源的四种主要类型的作物数量(灰色条)及其与中国起源的同类型作物数量(白色条)的对比"

表1

长江流域起源的代表性作物的驯化时间"

驯化时间 Time of domestication (year BP) 参考资料 Reference
水稻 Rice 12,000-7,000 Fuller & Qin, 2010; Huang et al, 2012
荞麦 Buckwheat 7,000-4,000 Konishi et al, 2005
茶 Tea 3,000-2,000 Xia et al, 2017
苎麻 Ramie 4,000-3,000 Zhu et al, 2017
油茶 Oil-tea camellia < 1,000 Cui et al, 2016
油桐 Tung oil tree < 1,500 Zhang et al, 2015
莲 Lotus 3,000-2,000 Yang et al, 2013
菱 Water chestnut 3,000-2,500 Dong & Liu, 2008
柑橘 Orange 4,000-3,000 Dong & Liu, 2008
李 Plum 3,000-2,000 Dong & Liu, 2008
枇杷 Loquat 2,000-1,500 Wang et al, 2017
中国樱桃 Chinese cherry 3,000-2,000 Li et al, 2009
猕猴桃 Kiwifruit < 100 Huang & Liu, 2014

表2

长江流域主要古文化遗迹的考古遗存统计与生产方式小结 (据游修龄, 2009; 笪浩波, 2010; 潘艳, 2011)"

流域
Basin
区域
Region
古文化
遗迹
Archaeological site
年代
Age (year BP)
植物遗存
Plant remains
动物遗存
Animal remains
生产方式
Mode of production
长江中
上游
Middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River
三峡地区、洞庭湖以及江汉平原
Three Gorges region, Dongting Lake and Jianghan Plain
玉蟾岩
Yuchanyan
10,000 稻谷、朴树籽
Rice and nettle tree seed
大量哺乳动物, 鸟类, 水生动物
Mammals, birds, and aquatic animals
采集与渔猎, 水稻种植
Gathering, fishing and hunting; rice cultivation
彭头山
Pengtoushan
9,100-8,200 稻谷、莲子、菱角、薏苡
Rice, lotus seed, water chestnut and Job’s tears
水牛
Buffalo
采集与渔猎, 水稻种植, 家畜饲养
Gathering, fishing and hunting; rice cultivation; livestock breeding
皂市
Zaoshi
8,000-7,000 稻谷
Rice
水牛, 猪, 鹿
Buffalo, boar and deer
原始农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎
Primitive farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting
城背溪
Chengbeixi
8,000-7,000 稻谷、果核
Rice and fruit seeds
水牛, 猪, 鹿
Buffalo, boar and deer
原始农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎
Primitive farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting
大溪
Daxi
6,300-5,300 稻谷
Rice
牛, 猪, 狗以及大量水生动物
Cattle, boar, dog and aquatic animals
水稻种植, 采集与渔猎
Rice cultivation; gathering, hunting and fishing
屈家岭
Qujialing
5,000-4,000 稻谷、粟、
猕猴桃
Rice, millet and kiwifruit
饲养的猪、
狗、羊
Domesticated pig, dog and goat
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达
Rice farming; livestock breeding; fishing and hunting; textiles are developed
流域
Basin
区域
Region
古文化
遗迹
Archaeological site
年代
Age (year BP)
植物遗存
Plant remains
动物遗存
Animal remains
生产方式
Mode of production
鄱阳湖区域
The areas around the Poyang Lake
仙人洞
Xianrendong
12,000 稻谷
Rice
哺乳动物、鱼、螺、蚌
Mammals, fishes, snails and mussels
采集与渔猎
Gathering, fishing and hunting
山背
Shanbei
5,000-4,500 稻谷、粟
Rice and millet
水稻种植
Rice cultivation
筑卫城
Zhuweicheng
5,000-4,500 稻谷、粟
Rice and millet
水稻种植
Rice cultivation
长江下游
Lower reaches of the Yangtze River
杭州湾以及太湖区域
The areas around the Hangzhou Bay and Taihu Lake
河姆渡
Hemudu
7,000-5,000 稻谷、橡子、菱角、芡实、慈姑、桃、南酸枣、葫芦、柿、紫苏
Rice, acorn, water chestnut, gorgon fruit, arrowhead, peach, axillary choerospondias fruit, gourd, persimmon and perilla
狗、猪、鹿、象、犀牛、四不象、猴和鱼类
Dog, boar, deer, elephant, rhino, Milu-deer, monkey and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 出现纺织业
Rice farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles occurred
马家浜
Majiabang
7,000-5,000 稻谷、橡子、菱角、桃、葫芦
Rice, acorn, water chestnut, peach and gourd
水牛、鹿、野猪、狐狸、麝、龟、蚌、螺蛳与各种鱼类
Buffalo, deer, boar, fox, musk, turtle, mussel, snail and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达
Rice farming; livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles were developed
良渚
Liangzhu
4,000 稻谷、小豆、苎麻、甜瓜子、南酸枣、桃、葫芦、菱角
Rice, legume, ramie, melon, axillary choerospondias fruit, peach, gourd and water chestnut
水牛、鹿、野猪、蚌、螺蛳与各种鱼类
Buffalo, deer, boar, mussel, snail and fishes
稻作农业, 家畜饲养, 采集与渔猎, 纺织业发达, 出现丝织品
Rice farming, livestock breeding; gathering, fishing and hunting; textiles were developed; silks occurred

表3

不同流域农耕文明的主要农作物(旧大陆)"

谷类
Grains
豆类
Legumes
蔬菜作物
Vegetable crop
经济作物
Economic crop
果树作物
Fruit crop
中国黄河
流域
The Yellow River Basin, China
Setaria italica
Panicum miliaceum
大豆
Glycine max
白菜 Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis
Allium tuberosum
Armeniaca vulgaris
海棠 Malus prunifolia
山楂 Crataegua pinnatifida
中国长江
流域
The Yangtze River Basin, China
Oryza sativa
荞麦 Fagopyrum esculentum
Allium chinense
蕹菜 Ipomoea aquatica
慈姑 Sagittaria trifolia
茭白 Zizania latifolia
苎麻 Boehmeria nivea
Morus alba
Camellia sinensis
柑橘 Citrus reticulata
猕猴桃 Actinidia chinensis
Prunus salicina
Armeniaca mume
两河流域
Mesopotamia
大麦
Hordeum vulgare
小麦
Triticum aestivum
燕麦 Avena sativa
扁豆 Lablab purpureus
豌豆 Pisum
sativum
蚕豆
Vicia faba
洋葱 Allium cepa
大蒜 Allium sativum
芝麻 Sesamum indicum
亚麻 Linum usitatissimum
枣椰 Phoenix dactylifera
油橄榄 Olea europaea
无花果
Ficus carica
尼罗河流域
The Nile Valley
大麦
Hordeum
vulgare
小麦
Triticum
aestivum
蚕豆 Vicia faba 芝麻 Sesamum indicum
亚麻 Linum usitatissimum
无花果
Ficus carica
印度河流域
The India River Basin

Oryza sativa
绿豆
Vigna
radiata
黄瓜 Cucumis sativus
丝瓜 Luffa cylindrical
茄子 Solanum
melongena
菠菜
Spinacia oleracea
木棉 Bombax malabaricum
胡椒 Piper
nigrum
甜瓜
Cucumis melo
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