生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (11): 1156-1160.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017248

• 《生物多样性公约》履约专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物遗传资源获取与惠益分享国家立法的重要问题

武建勇1, 薛达元2,*()   

  1. 1 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    2 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081;
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-12 接受日期:2017-11-17 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项

Important issues concerning the national legislation of access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing

Jianyong Wu1, Dayuan Xue2,*()   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2017-09-12 Accepted:2017-11-17 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan

摘要:

2014年10月12日《生物多样性公约关于获取遗传资源和公正公平分享其利用所产生惠益的名古屋议定书》(简称《名古屋议定书》)的正式生效标志着它已进入全面实施阶段。《名古屋议定书》在国家层面的有效实施需要国家立法提供保障。本文从法律地位、术语与定义、获取与审批、后续监管、跟踪监测等方面探讨了获取与惠益分享(access and benefit-sharing, ABS)国家立法需要深入研究的问题, 提出获取与惠益分享国家立法应与现有法律法规协同增效, 明确生物遗传资源及相关传统知识所有权, 区别商业与非商业获取; 增加术语与定义以厘清概念, 并促进某些条款的可操作性; 明确ABS主管当局、资源主管部门和获取审批材料清单, 获取申请的准予形式和内容, 实行分类管理与审批获取活动, 在鼓励科研的同时有效规范和监管商业开发的获取行为, 特别是获取出境行为, 同时要考虑特殊情形的获取管理; 通过遵守证书从提供国和使用国的角度进行后续监管; 保留获取样品凭证, 建立检查点对获取、利用、知识产权等各个环节进行跟踪监测, 以确保获取与惠益分享国家法律的有效实施。

关键词: 名古屋议定书, 获取与惠益分享, 国家制度, 遗传资源, 传统知识

Abstract:

The Nagoya Protocol (NP) entered into force on 12 October 2014 and was fully implemented thereafter. The effective implementation of the NP at the national level requires strong support through national legislation. In this regard, the Chinese government is drafting regulations on the administration of access to biological genetic resources, which are included in the State Council legislative plan for 2015. To provide recommendations, this study presents a discussion on several aspects that should be concerned and focused on the development of national legislation on access and benefit-sharing (ABS), for instance, the legal status, terms and definitions, access and approval process, follow-up supervision, and monitoring. We further propose views to provide references for establishing national ABS regulation and to ensure effective implementation. These include: (1) National ABS regulation should be combined with current legislation to synergically supervise biological genetic resources and traditional knowledge related to genetic resources, thus to identify the ownership of biological genetic resources and related traditional knowledge, and to distinguish commercial and non-commercial acquisition; (2) Developing items and definitions to clarify concepts and promote the operation of certain legal provisions; (3) Clearing ABS authorities, resources management authorities and the required materials lists for acquisition, as well as forms and content of the acquisition application. In addition, supervising and approving acquisition activities should be completed using categories, thus to encourage scientific research and regulate commercial developments, especially for outbound acquisition activities. In particular, it is necessary to consider specific administration and management regulations; (4) Monitoring follow-up activities from the perspective of both provider states and user states using the certificate of compliance; and (5) Reserving records and documents on access to samples, and setting up checkpoints to monitor and regulate access, utilization, intellectual rights and other aspects.

Key words: Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit-sharing, national systems, genetic resources, traditional knowledge