生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (11): 1169-1175.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017246

• 《生物多样性公约》履约专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国与COP15——负责任环境大国的路径选择

邹玥屿, 傅钰琳, 杨礼荣, 万夏林, 王也, 刘纪新*()   

  1. 环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-10 接受日期:2017-09-19 出版日期:2017-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘纪新 E-mail:liu.jixin@mepfeco.org.cn

China and COP 15: a path for responsible environmental power

Yueyu Zou, Yulin Fu, Lirong Yang, Xialin Wan, Ye Wang, Jixin Liu*()   

  1. Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, Ministry of Environment Protection, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2017-09-10 Accepted:2017-09-19 Online:2017-11-20
  • Contact: Liu Jixin E-mail:liu.jixin@mepfeco.org.cn

《生物多样性公约》第15届缔约方大会(COP15)将于2020年在中国召开, 这是《生物多样性公约》国际进程中一个承上启下的关键节点。本文尝试在国家自身发展阶段和履约动态的历史背景下, 以国家环境外交战略为尺度, 分析东道国承办大会的内在动因与收益。案例表明, 举办较为成功的几次缔约方大会都体现出了与国家总体外交战略的紧密联系, 取得了与本国国内或所在区域的生态环保政策相呼应的历史性成果, 从而在推动《公约》进程的同时提振国内生物多样性工作, 实现了边际效益的最大化。中国同样可以借助承办COP15的机会, 逐步实现生态环境外交由被动到主动、由内向到外向的转型, 与世界共谋全球生态文明建设之路。为实现该目标, 会议筹备过程中应注重将其列入国家大外交日程, 以主动、开放的姿态与国际社会合作, 加强与区域及发展中国家的战略协同, 充分总结《公约》履约的中国经验、中国方案, 为推动建立更加公正、合理、高效的全球生物多样性治理体系作出贡献。

关键词: 生物多样性公约, 缔约方大会, 环境外交

The Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) will be hosted by China in 2020 and could become a milestone in the history of the Convention. This article aims to identify lessons that can be learnt by China in preparation for COP15. The internal motivations and political gains of several host countries with respect to previous COPs were analyzed by looking at national environmental foreign policies against the backdrop of the country’s development and corresponding progress made in convention implementation. This case study of successful COPs indicates that host countries do not treat it as an isolated event but an action under the country’s foreign policy strategy, which provides a strong momentum for the country to contribute to the process. Additionally, by formulating host country initiatives in harmony with existing national and regional policies in the field, the host country was able to optimize marginal effects and gains at both the national and global level. China could also make use the opportunity of hosting COP15 to gradually transform its passive and inward-looking eco-environmental foreign policy into an outward-looking one featuring active engagement and work on eco-civilization along with the international community. In preparation for COP15, China should work together with international stakeholders, reinforce regional strategic coordination and synergism with developing countries, and share Chinese experiences in biodiversity conservation in order to contribute to the creation of a fair, rational, and efficient system of global biodiversity governance.

Key words: Convention on Biological Diversity, Conference of Parties, environmental foreign policy

表1

近5次缔约方大会(COP)基本情况"

会议
COP
时间
Time
地点
Venue
注册人数
No. of delegates
东道国出席领导人
Attending leader of the host country
来源
Source
COP9 2008年5月19-30日
May 19-30, 2008
德国波恩
Bonn, Germany
7,000 总理 Chancellor Evans & Davies, 2014
COP10 2010年10月18-29日
October 18-29, 2010
日本名古屋
Nagoya, Japan
7,000 首相 Prime Minister Evans & Davies, 2014
COP11 2012年10月8-19日
October 8-19, 2012
印度哈德拉巴德
Hyderabad, India
6,000 总理 Prime Minister Evans & Davies, 2014
COP12 2014年10月6-17日
October 6-17, 2014
韩国平昌
Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea
3,000 总理 Prime Minister IISD, 2014
COP13 2016年12月2-17日
December 2-17, 2016
墨西哥坎昆
Cancun, Mexico
8,000 总统 President IISD, 2016

"

年份
Year
会议
COP
主办国
Host country
主要成果
Major outcomes
1994 COP1 巴哈马
Bahamas
通过公约执行框架、缔约方大会中期工作方案(1995-1997年); 建立科学技术合作信息交换所机制(CHM)与科学、技术和工艺咨询附属机构(SBSTTA); 确定全球环境基金(GEF)为《公约》的资金机制
Adopt the framework for the implementation of the CBD and the medium-term programme of work of the Conference of the Parties (1995-1997); Establish the Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA); Decide the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as financial mechanism
1995 COP2 印度尼西亚
Indonesia
通过关于海洋及沿海生物多样性的《雅加达任务》; 成立生物安全临时工作组, 开始生物安全议定书的谈判
Adopt Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Costal Biodiversity; Establish the Ad-hoc Working Group on Biosafety to start the negotiations on biosafety protocol
1996 COP3 阿根廷
Argentina
通过《公约》与GEF的《谅解备忘录》; 开始农业生物多样性、森林生物多样性、生态系统方法和8(j)条款的讨论
Adopt the Memorandum of Understanding with GEF; Start discussions on agricultural biodiversity, forest biodiversity, ecosystem approach and Article 8(j)
1998 COP4 斯洛伐克
Slovakia
成立8(j)条款不限名额特设工作组、ABS专家组; 通过海洋与沿海生物多样性、森林生物多样性和内陆水域生物多样性工作方案、全球生物分类学倡议(GTI)
Establish an Ad-hoc Working Group on Article 8(j) and a Panel of Experts on ABS; Adopt the Programme of Work on marine and coastal biodiversity, forest biodiversity and inland biodiversity, and the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI)
2000 COP5 肯尼亚 Kenya 生物安全议定书开放签字; 通过干旱和半湿润地区的生物多样性工作方案、农业生物多样性多年期工作方案; 《公约》与《拉姆萨湿地公约》的联合工作计划; 生态系统方法准则
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety opens for signature; Adopt Programmes of Work on dry and sub-humid lands and agriculture biodiversity, the Joint Work Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) and the Ecosystem Approach Principles
2002 COP6 荷兰
the Netherlands
通过《公约》战略计划(2002-2010年)、波恩准则、全球生物分类学倡议工作方案、全球植物保护战略
Adopt the Strategic Plan (2002-2010), the Bonn Guidelines on ABS, the Programme of work on Global Taxonomy and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation
2004 COP7 马来西亚
Malaysia
通过山地生物多样性、保护区、技术转让与合作工作方案; 成立岛屿生物多样性特设专家组; 授权ABS工作组开始进行ABS机制设计谈判
Adopt Programme of Work on mountain biodiversity, protected areas and technology transfer; Establish Ad-hoc Technical Expert Group on island biodiversity; Give Ad-hoc Working Group on ABS the mandate to start negotiations on the ABS regime design
2006 COP8 巴西 Brazil 通过岛屿生物多样性工作方案; 成立遗传资源起源地、来源和合法出处证书特设技术专家组
Adopt the Programme of Work on island biodiversity; Establish a group of technical experts on an internationally recognized certificate of origin/source/legal provenance
2008 COP9 德国 Germany 成立生物多样性与气候变化特设技术专家组; 通过ABS国际机制谈判路线图
Establish the Ad-hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change; Adopt a roadmap for the negotiation of international ABS regime
2010 COP10 日本 Japan 通过《名古屋议定书》、全球生物多样性战略计划(2011-2020年)、资源调动战略执行框架
Adopt the Nagoya Protocol, Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and the Framework for the Implementation of the Resource Mobilization Strategy
2012 COP11 印度 India 提出到2015年流向发展中国家的生物多样性相关国际财政资源翻一番, 并至少维持到2020年的初步目标
Put forward a preliminary target of doubling the financial resource flows to developing countries by 2015 and maintaining the momentum to at least 2020
2014 COP12 韩国
Republic of Korea
形成平昌路线图; 设立执行问题附属机构
Adopt the Pyeonchang Roadmap; Create the Subsidiary Body on Implementation
2016 COP13 墨西哥 Mexico 提出《坎昆宣言》, 促进生物多样性主流化; 通过生态系统恢复短期行动计划
Put forward the Cancun declaration on mainstreaming; Adopt a short-term action plan on ecosystem restoration
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