生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (11): 1182-1191.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017167

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

云南松天然次生林物种丰富度与生态系统多功能性的关系

黄小波1, 2, 李帅锋1, 2, 苏建荣1, 2, *(), 刘万德1, 2, 郎学东1, 2   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所, 昆明 650224
    2 云南普洱森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 昆明 650224;
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-05 接受日期:2017-11-20 出版日期:2017-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 苏建荣 E-mail:jianrongsu@vip.sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    中国林科院基本科研业务费专项(CAFYBB2017ZX002)和林业公益性行业科研专项(201404211)

The relationship between species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in the Pinus yunnanensis natural secondary forest

Xiaobo Huang1, 2, Shuaifeng Li1, 2, Jianrong Su1, 2, *(), Wande Liu1, 2, Xuedong Lang1, 2   

  1. 1 Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224
    2 Pu’er Forest Ecosytem Research Station, State Forest Administration, Kunming 650224;
  • Received:2017-06-05 Accepted:2017-11-20 Online:2017-11-20
  • Contact: Su Jianrong E-mail:jianrongsu@vip.sina.com

全球气候变化、森林采伐和生境破碎化导致全球生物多样性迅速下降, 并对生态系统功能产生了严重的影响。近年来, 生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系成为生态学研究的热点, 但以往的研究多关注生物多样性与单一生态系统功能的关系, 对生态系统尤其是森林生态系统多功能性的研究亟待加强。本文基于云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)天然次生林94个样地的调查数据, 选取木本植物生物量、土壤有机碳含量、植物氮、植物磷、土壤全氮、土壤水解性氮、土壤全磷和土壤有效磷等8个生态系统功能变量, 采用平均值法、单阈值法和多阈值法综合评价了云南松天然次生林物种丰富度与生态系统多功能性的关系及影响因子。结果表明: (1)云南松天然次生林物种丰富度与生态系统多功能性的关系强于它与单一生态系统功能间的关系; (2)在3-88%阈值范围内, 物种丰富度对于多功能性具有显著正影响, 在中等阈值水平(54%)上, 物种丰富度效应最大, 此时可能的最大物种丰富度作用实现百分比为53.53%; (3)云南松天然次生林中物种丰富度对多功能性的影响最大, 表现为极显著正相关; 年均气温、年均降水量和土壤pH对多功能性无显著直接影响, 但均可通过对物种丰富度的影响而产生间接影响。物种丰富度对生态系统多功能性具有重要意义, 但是物种数目的增加并不能保证所有功能均达到最佳状态, 在中等功能水平时, 物种数目的增加对多功能性的影响最大。

关键词: 云南松, 生物多样性, 物种丰富度, 结构方程模型, 生态系统多功能性

Under global climate change, biodiversity is decreasing rapidly due to deforestation and habitat fragmentation, which has serious consequences for ecosystem functioning. In recent years, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has been a core research area in ecology. Previous researchers have paid great attention to the relationship between biodiversity and individual ecosystem functioning, and seldom consider multiple functions (multifunctionlity), especially in forest ecosystems. Here, based on survey data from 94 plots of Pinus yunnanensis in a natural secondary forest, we selected variables related to ecosystem functioning: woody plant biomass, soil organic carbon, plant nitrogen, plant phosphorus, soil total nitrogen, soil hydrolyzable nitrogen, soil total phosphorus, and soil available phosphorus. We used an averaging approach, single threshold approach, and multiple threshold approach to evaluate the effects of species richness on ecosystem multifunctionality and impacting factors. Results showed that the relationship between species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality was stronger than that of individual ecosystem functioning. Species richness had a significant positive effect on multifunctionality within thresholds ranging from 3% to 88%. When using a moderate threshold (54%), species richness had the strongest positive effect, and the percentage of maximum possible species richness was 53.53%. Path analysis of a structural equation model showed that species richness had the strongest (positive) effect on multifunctionality in the Pinus yunnanensis natural secondary forest. Mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and soil pH had insignificant effects on multifunctionality, but indirect effects via influences on species richness. Species richness may be of primary importance when considering ecosystem multifunctionality. Increasing species numbers may not always lead to the optimal state of all functions. Increasing species numbers had the strongest effects on multifunctionality, but only once multifunctionality reached moderate levels.

Key words: Pinus yunnanensis, biodiversity, species richness, structural equation modeling, ecosystem multifunctionality

表1

云南松天然次生林物种丰富度与单一生态系统功能以及生态系统多功能性的关系"

功能指标 Function parameters 物种丰富度
Speicies richness
R2 P
植物氮 Plant nitrogen 0.01 P = 0.310
植物磷 Plant phosphorus 0.26 P < 0.001
土壤水解性氮 Soil hydrolyzable nitrogen 0.20 P < 0.001
土壤有效磷 Soil available phosphorus 0.20 P < 0.001
土壤全氮 Soil total nitrogen 0.19 P < 0.001
土壤全磷 Soil total phosphorus 0.13 P < 0.001
土壤有机碳 Soil organic carbon 0.26 P < 0.001
木本植物生物量 Woody plant biomass 0.04 P < 0.001
生态系统多功能性 Ecosystem multifunctionality 0.39 P < 0.001

图1

不同阈值水平下云南松天然次生林的物种丰富度效应。物种丰富度效应表示物种丰富度与达到所测功能最大值的某一阈值的功能数间关系的斜率。各个点是拟合值, 阴影代表±1的置信区间。"

图2

云南松天然次生林物种丰富度与达到所测功能最大值的某一阈值的功能数之间的关系。矩形框内的百分数代表4个不同的阈值水平(20%, 40%, 60%, 80%)。"

图3

生物和非生物因子与生态系统多功能性(EMF)关系的结构方程模型。实线代表极显著(P < 0.01); 虚线代表不显著路径(P > 0.05), 并给出路径系数β。Plant SR: 物种丰富度; MAT: 年均气温; MAP: 年均降水量; Soil pH: 土壤pH值。"

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