生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1105-1113.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017134

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于人工地物时空变化的自然保护区空间近邻 效应评估: 以沙坡头国家级自然保护区为例

刘方正1, 张鹏2, 张玉波1, 陈冰1, 杜金鸿1, 王伟1, *(), 李俊生1   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
    2 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院沙坡头沙漠研究试验站, 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-04 接受日期:2017-08-06 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 王伟 E-mail:wang.wei@craes.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31300453)和中国科学院野外站联盟项目(KFJ-SW-YW028)

Assessment of the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects: a case study on Shapotou National Nature Reserve

Fangzheng Liu1, Peng Zhang2, Yubo Zhang1, Bing Chen1, Jinhong Du1, Wei Wang1, *(), Junsheng Li1   

  1. 1 Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000
  • Received:2017-05-04 Accepted:2017-08-06 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Wang Wei E-mail:wang.wei@craes.org.cn

已有研究表明, 建立自然保护区会对其周边生态环境产生影响, 即自然保护区的空间近邻效应。当前, 一些自然保护区的周边区域生态环境发生了较大变化, 尤其体现在人工地物的时空变化上。研究基于人工地物时空变化的自然保护区空间近邻效应, 关系到自然保护区及其保护对象长久的生存和安全。为研究空间近邻效应的变化区间和作用距离, 识别驱动因子, 本文以宁夏沙坡头国家级自然保护区为例, 对自然保护区周边20 km范围内的空间进行分割, 结合1990-2015年遥感影像解译和人工地物提取, 利用Mann-Kendall趋势分析法和驱动因子的相关性检验分析, 提出了基于人工地物时空变化的空间近邻效应评估技术。结果表明: (1)随着时间的推移, 研究区域内人工地物面积及景观格局不断扩大和扩张, 人为活动影响在增强。(2)人工地物的空间近邻效应随时间的推移而增强, 随距离尺度的增加而下降。(3)空间近邻效应的变化趋势在各区间内的显著性和驱动力因子为: 第一区间(1-5 km)的下降趋势偶见显著性, 驱动力来自防护林; 第二区间(6-10 km)的下降趋势具有显著性, 驱动力来自城镇用地; 第三区间(11-20 km)的下降趋势具有极显著性, 驱动力来自农田。沙坡头国家级自然保护区建立以来, 周边土地利用变化受人为作用影响明显, 须引起关注。

关键词: 自然保护区, 空间近邻效应, 溢出, 泄露, 趋势分析

It has been shown that the established nature reserves will affect the surrounding ecological environment, that is, the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves. At present, the ecological environment of the surrounding areas of some nature reserves has changed greatly, especially in the temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects. To study the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects will do significant help to maintain the survival and safety of nature reserve and its protected objects. To analyze the variation intervals of the space neighborhood effect and the distance scale, and to identify the driving factors, we chose Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve as a case study. We divided the study area within a range of 20 km around the nature reserve, extracted the artificial objects from the remote image analysis between 1990 and 2015, and used Mann-Kendall trend analysis and driving factor correlation test analysis, to assess the space neighborhood effect of nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes in artificial objects. Results showed that the areas and patterns of artificial objects were expanding, which meant the impacts of human activities were increasing over time. In addition, the space neighborhood effect was most evident with increases in time and decreases in the distance scale. Trends in the space neighborhood effect were divided into three descending intervals, and the driving factors differed. In the first interval (1-5 km), the trend was occasionally significant, and shelter forest was the main driving factor. In the second interval (6-10 km), significance of the descending trend could be observed, and building became the driving factor. Lastly, the driving factor was farming, and a very significant descending trend was found in the third interval (11-20 km). Since the establishment of the Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve, its surrounding land-use changes are significantly influenced by human activities, which needs attention.

Key words: nature reserves, space neighborhood effect, spillover, leakage, trend analysis

图1

研究区域位置示意图"

图2

1990-2015年研究区域遥感解译结果"

表1

各时期土地利用类型及其面积"

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
防护林 Shelter forest 17,498 10,536 13,592 23,990 21,878 22,200
天然草地 Natural grassland 38,971 41,608 34,462 34,742 35,026 38,393
农田 Farm 21,027 24,132 22,315 16,619 24,738 25,056
荒漠 Desert 224,391 225,600 230,718 224,165 213,015 203,397
河流 River 1,868 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858
湖泊 Lake 195 195 885 1,246 1,592 1,479
城镇用地 Building 712 733 832 2,041 6,512 9,202
能源用地 Solar energy 0 0 0 0 42 3,076
总计 Total 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661

图3

1990-2015年研究区域人工地物空间近邻效应趋势图"

表2

人工地物空间近邻效应Mann-Kendall趋势检验统计量Z值结果"

距离尺度 Distance scale (km) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
第一区间 1st interval 1-5 -0.73 -0.73 -1.96 -2.20* -1.47 -2.20*
第二区间 2nd interval 6-10 -2.20* -1.96 -1.96 -1.96 -2.20* -2.20*
第三区间 3rd interval 11-20 -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.58** -3.58**

表3

空间近邻效应的驱动力因子相关性分析结果"

1990 1995 2000
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
第一区间 1st interval 0.855 -0.527 0.767 0.713 -0.418 0.773 0.848 -0.381 0.955*
第二区间 2nd interval 0.949* 0.871 0.904* 0.996** 0.939* 0.993** 0.645 0.907* 0.994**
第三区间 3rd interval 0.449 0.936** -0.013 0.682* 0.977** -0.399 0.887** 0.713* -0.273
全区间 Entire interval 0.959** 0.594** 0.635** 0.786** 0.756** 0.606** 0.869** 0.720** 0.689**
2005 2010 2015
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
能源用地
Solar energy
防护林
Shelter forest
农田
Farm
城镇用地
Building
能源用地
Solar energy
第一区间
1st interval
0.993** -0.620 0.649 0.638 -0.404 0.647 0.973** 0.962** 0.110 0.186 -0.583
第二区间
2nd interval
0.602 0.892* 0.473 0.957* 0.530 0.948* - 0.987** -0.038 0.891* 0.901*
第三区间
3rd interval
0.846** 0.729* - 0.618 0.912** 0.073 - 0.794** 0.903** 0.751* 0.041
全区间
Entire interval
0.985** 0.538* 0.610** 0.959** 0.360 0.662** 0.490* 0.976** 0.533* 0.489* 0.830**
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