生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 678-689.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017132

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西双版纳种子植物物种多样性的垂直格局及机制

徐翔, 张化永*(), 谢婷, 孙青青, 田永兰   

  1. 华北电力大学工程生态学与非线性科学研究中心, 北京 102206
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-08 接受日期:2018-05-26 出版日期:2018-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 张化永 E-mail:bjecology@gmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07101001-01;2015ZX07203-011;2015ZX07204-007;2009ZX07210-009)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2017MS065)

Elevational pattern of seed plant diversity in Xishuangbanna and its mechanisms

Xu Xiang, Zhang Huayong*(), Xie Ting, Sun Qingqing, Tian Yonglan   

  1. Research Center for Engineering Ecology and Nonlinear Science, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206
  • Received:2018-03-08 Accepted:2018-05-26 Online:2018-07-20
  • Contact: Zhang Huayong E-mail:bjecology@gmail.com

物种多样性海拔分布格局及其形成机制的研究是生物地理学和宏观生态学的重要议题之一。本文利用西双版纳植物专著资料, 结合高分辨率的地形和气候等数据, 探讨了面积、边界限制和现代气候对西双版纳野生种子植物物种丰富度及物种密度海拔分布格局的影响。结果表明: (1)物种丰富度呈单峰分布格局, 面积(81.9%)、边界限制(17.5%)和气候(60.0-69.3%)都不同程度地解释了物种丰富度的单峰格局; (2)利用幂函数种-面积关系计算的物种密度沿海拔大致呈减小的分布趋势, 气候的解释率降低为32.6-40.6%, 与边界限制无显著相关关系; (3)利用等面积高度带划分得到的物种密度沿海拔呈单峰变化趋势, 物种密度与边界限制无显著相关性, 但气候对物种密度的解释率为81.6-89.9%。研究结果有助于准确全面地理解物种多样性的海拔分布格局及其成因机制, 为西双版纳生物多样性保护提供理论支撑和实践指导。

关键词: 物种丰富度, 物种密度, 种-面积关系, 中域效应, 海拔

The mechanisms underlying elevational patterns of species diversity remain one of the most important questions in biogeography and macroecology. We studied the effects of area, mid-domain effect (MDE) and contemporary climate on elevational patterns in species richness and species density for native seed plants in Xishuangbanna, for which we used plant monograph, digital elevation model, and large-scale climatic data. We found that: (1) area, MDE, and climate explained 81.9%, 17.5%, and 60.0-69.3% of the unimodal pattern in species richness; (2) when species richness calculated using the species-area hypothesis showed a decreasing pattern along the elevational gradient. Moreover, richness was not correlated to MDE and the explanatory power of climate decreased to 32.6-40.6%; (3) species richness calculated using equal-area elevational bands showed a hump-shaped pattern but was not correlated to MDE; the explanatory power of climate was 81.6-89.9%. Our results provides comprehensive insights into the theoretical mechanisms underlying elevational patterns in species diversity and also provide practical guidance for the biodiversity conservation in Xishuangbanna.

Key words: species richness, species density, species-area relationship, mid-domain effect, elevation

图1

西双版纳的地形分布图"

图2

西双版纳的土地利用类型分布图"

图3

西双版纳种子植物物种丰富度的垂直分布格局"

图4

西双版纳种子植物物种丰富度与面积、中域效应(MDE)模拟值、年均温、年降水量、最冷月最低温和实际蒸散量的关系"

图5

基于筛除算法鉴别得到的西双版纳植物多样性热点地区累积物种数目的比例与累积海拔段数(a)和累积面积(b)的关系"

图6

基于筛除算法鉴别得到的西双版纳植物多样性热点地区和自然保护区的空间关系"

表1

西双版纳植物多样性热点地区和自然保护区的空间关系"

热点地区海拔段
Hotspot elevational band (m)
保护区覆盖的热点地区面积
Hotspot area covered
by nature reserves (km2)
保护区覆盖的热点地区比例
Percentage of hotspot area covered by nature reserves (%)
800-900 312.63 28.90
1,300-1,400 303.45 25.70
600-700 57.16 6.58
1,000-1,100 585.83 36.20
1,500-1,600 129.96 21.53
1,700-1,800 61.78 18.76
1,100-1,200 529.49 31.08
合计 Total 1,980.30 26.81
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