生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 531-539.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017022

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳兰科植物集市贸易特点和保护启示

宋亚琼1, 3, #, 刘芝龙1#, Sophie Willian1, 高江云2, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园综合保护中心, 云南勐腊 666303
    2 云南大学生态学与进化生物学实验室, 昆明 650091
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-21 接受日期:2017-03-09 出版日期:2017-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 宋亚琼,高江云 E-mail:jiangyun.gao@ynu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(31470450)和中国博士后科学基金特别资助项目(Y2BSH11B07)

Characteristics of the orchid trade at public markets and implications for conservation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

Yaqiong Song1, 3, #, Zhilong Liu1#, Sophie Willian1, Jiangyun Gao2, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishaungbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 Laboratory of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-01-21 Accepted:2017-03-09 Online:2017-05-20
  • Contact: Song Yaqiong,Gao Jiangyun E-mail:jiangyun.gao@ynu.edu.cn

西双版纳是我国兰科植物多样性的热点地区之一。本文对该地区6个主要的集贸市场开展了为期1年(每月1次)的兰科植物贸易调查, 以了解该地区野生兰科植物采集和贸易的特点及趋势, 为兰科植物的有效保护提供依据。本次调查共记录到兰科植物38属107种, 87.9%的种类为附生兰, 除铁皮石斛(Dendrobium officinale)外, 其余均为野生采集。在记录到的106种野生采集的兰科植物中, 93.4%为西双版纳原生分布种, 约占该地区野生兰科植物总数的1/4, 但大多数种类的记录频次都很低, 记录频次在10次以上的仅有14种, 说明该地区兰科植物的采集和贸易在种类上具有一定的普遍性和随意性。市场上的兰花售卖者大多数都为当地居民, 他们将采集和出售兰花作为经济收入的来源和部分补充。本次调查没有发现跨边境兰花的采集和贸易。西双版纳兰科植物的贸易具有明显的传统性、地域性和季节性, 4-6月为兰花贸易的高峰期。石斛属(Dendrobium)植物是最主要的贸易对象, 共记录到35种, 占总数的32.7%, 记录频次最多的种类也都是石斛属植物。本地区药用石斛人工集约化栽培的快速发展并没有减少对野生石斛的采集, 反而在一定程度上刺激和促进了市场上的野生石斛贸易。通过对兰花贸易特点的分析, 我们针对该地区兰科植物的有效保护提出了针对性的建议, 包括应尽快制定和颁布地方性的法律法规, 维护和传承本地区传统的植物文化, 对古茶园和龙山林等进行持续的保护和采用传统方式管理, 开展有针对性的公众教育和宣传来提高公众的保护意识, 以及大力发展药用石斛的生态栽培, 使更多的当地居民参与其中, 并获得收益, 从而减少对野生资源的采集。

关键词: 兰花贸易, 保护, 石斛产业, 过度采集, 西双版纳

The Xishuangbanna region is one of the orchid hotspots in China. To understand the characteristics and trends of the orchid trade in the region, we surveyed six public markets in 2015. We identified and recorded 107 orchid species, belonging to 38 genera. Among them, 87.9% of the species were epiphytic. Apart from Dendrobium officinale, all species were collected in the wild. Among the 106 wild-harvested species, 93.4% were originally distributed to Xishuangbanna, and represented a quarter of the total species found in the area. The record frequencies of most species were very low. Only 14 species were recorded more than ten times, suggesting that the collection and trade of wild orchids was not systematic. Most of the sellers were local people. Collecting wild orchids for sale was not their main economic activity, and none of them collected or traded orchids across international borders. The highest abundance of orchids was recorded between April and June. Dendrobium species were traded the most. In total, 35 Dendrobium species were identified, representing 32.7% of all the recorded species. Dendrobium species had also the highest recorded frequencies. Although recently the area has seen rapid development of commercial cultivations of medicinal Dendrobium orchids, this development does not seem to have reduced the harvesting pressure on wild Dendrobium species and on the contrary, may have encouraged it. Based on market surveys, we make several conservation suggestions targeting orchids in the area.

Key words: orchid trade, conservation, Dendrobium industry, over-harvesting, Xishuangbanna

图1

西双版纳贸易兰科植物的种类构成"

图2

西双版纳贸易兰科植物记录频次分布"

表1

西双版纳6个集贸市场销售的兰花种属组成"

集贸市场
Markets
属数
Number of genera
种数
Number of species
i 14 35
ii 14 29
iii 34 91
iv 10 20
v 7 29
vi 1 5

图3

西双版纳贸易兰科植物种数月变化"

图4

西双版纳不同利用价值贸易兰科植物的记录频次(平均值±标准误差)。不同字母表示相互间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

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