生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 304-311.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016306

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上海大金山岛不同植被类型下土壤动物群落多样性

靳亚丽1, 李必成1, 耿龙2, 卜云1, *()   

  1. 1 .上海科技馆, 上海自然博物馆, 自然史研究中心, 上海 200041
    2 .上海海洋管理事务中心, 上海 200050
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-21 接受日期:2016-12-31 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 卜云 E-mail:buy@sstm.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    上海海洋管理事务中心2015年大金山岛生态调查项目、上海市自然科学基金资助项目(17ZR1418700)、上海科技馆引进高层次人才科研启动项目和上海科技馆种子课题

Soil fauna community in different natural vegetation types of Dajinshan Island, Shanghai

Yali Jin1, Bicheng Li1, Long Geng2, Yun Bu1, *()   

  1. 1 Natural History Research Center, Shanghai Natural History Museum, Shanghai Science & Technology Museum, Shanghai 200041
    2 Shanghai Administration Center for Ocean Affairs, Shanghai 200050
  • Received:2016-10-21 Accepted:2016-12-31 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Bu Yun E-mail:buy@sstm.org.cn

大金山岛属上海市金山三岛海洋生态保护区, 岛上土壤未受到人为活动的污染。为了解不同自然植被类型下土壤动物群落结构组成及其生态分布, 于2015年秋季在大金山岛竹林、乔木林和灌木林的南、北坡中分别进行土壤动物采样。结果显示: 6个样地共捕获土壤动物12,769只, 隶属于28个类群, 优势类群为蜱螨亚纲和弹尾纲, 分别占总捕获量的70.15%和19.27%; 常见类群有原尾纲、半翅目、膜翅目和线蚓科, 占总捕获量的7.06%。北坡和南坡优势类群均为蜱螨亚纲(74.26%、65.32%)和弹尾纲(16.52%、22.49%), 但常见类群和稀有类群存在一定差异。不同植被类型土壤动物的群落结构组成存在一定差异, 但无论是北坡还是南坡密度均为灌木林 > 乔木林 > 竹林, 类群数变化为灌木林 > 竹林 > 乔木林。无论北坡还是南坡, 不同植被类型下土壤动物群落生态指数各不相同, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Simpson优势度指数均为灌木林 > 乔木林 > 竹林。大金山岛灌木林中土壤动物群落多样性高于乔木林和竹林, 很可能与灌木林中较为适宜的微环境有关。

关键词: 岛屿, 自然植被, 群落密度, 坡度

Dajinshan Island is part of Jinshan Three-Islands Marine Natural Reserve. Soil on the island has not been polluted by human activities and it is therefore an ideal place to study island ecosystem diversity. To understand the composition and ecological distribution of soil fauna communities in different natural forest vegetation types on Dajinshan Island, the soil fauna communities in three natural forests including bamboo forest, arboreal forest, and shrubbery were investigated during autumn 2015. Each forest included both north slope and south slope regions. A total of 12,769 individuals of soil fauna belonging to 28 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Acari and Collembola, accounting for 70.15% and 19.27%, respectively. The common groups were Protura, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Enchytraediae, and they accounted for 7.06% of the total in terms of individual numbers. The dominant groups were Acari (74.26%, 65.32%) and Collembola (16.52%, 22.49%) in both north slope and south slope regions, but differed in common groups and rare groups. The soil fauna communities were different in the three natural forests. In both north and south slope region, the density of soil fauna followed the order of: shrubbery > arboreal forest > bamboo forest, but the number of groups of soil fauna followed the order of: shrubbery > bamboo forest > arboreal forest. Different ecological indexes of soil fauna communities in the three natural forests were different. Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, and Simpson index followed the following order: shrubbery > arboreal forest > bamboo forest in both north and south slope regions. The Shannon-Wiener index was significantly different in the three natural forests. The higher soil fauna diversity in shrubbery was probably induced by the favorable microenvironment.

Key words: Island, natural vegetation, community density, slope

图1

大金山岛的地理位置及采样点设置。ZL: 竹林; QML: 乔木林; GML: 灌木林; N: 北坡; S: 南坡。"

表1

大金山岛南坡和北坡土壤动物群落组成和密度(ind./m2)"

类群
Group
北坡 North slope 南坡 South slope
个体数
Individuals
密度
Density (%)
优势度
Dominance
个体数
Individuals
密度
Density (%)
优势度
Dominance
蜱螨亚纲 Acari 5,125 25,309 (74.26) +++ 3,833 18,928 (65.32) +++
弹尾纲 Collembola 1,140 5,630 (16.52) +++ 1,320 6,519 (22.49) +++
线虫纲 Nematoda 62 306 (0.90) + 198 978 (3.37) ++
原尾纲 Protura 147 726 (2.13) ++ 42 207 (0.72) +
线蚓科 Enchytraediae 156 770 (2.26) ++ 28 138 (0.48) +
半翅目 Hemiptera 4 20 (0.06) + 132 652 (2.25) ++
膜翅目 Hymenoptera 55 272 (0.80) + 78 385 (1.33) ++
双翅目幼虫 Diptera larvae 48 237 (0.70) + 77 380 (1.31) ++
综合纲 Symphyla 28 138 (0.41) + 24 119 (0.41) +
等足目 Isopoda 15 74 (0.22) + 36 178 (0.61) +
少足纲 Pauropoda 27 133 (0.39) + 17 84 (0.29) +
倍足纲 Diplopoda 25 123 (0.36) + 16 79 (0.27) +
双尾纲 Diplura 17 84 (0.25) + 15 74 (0.26) +
鞘翅目成虫 Coleoptera adult 10 49 (0.14) + 11 54 (0.19) +
鞘翅目幼虫 Coleoptera larvae 10 49 (0.14) + 7 35 (0.12) +
拟蝎目 Pseudoscorpionida 3 15 (0.14) + 10 49 (0.17) +
石蜈蚣目 Lithobiomorpha 7 35 (0.10) + 5 25 (0.09) +
蜘蛛目 Araneae 6 30 (0.09) + 4 20 (0.07) +
缨翅目 Thysanoptera 0 0 6 30 (0.10) +
鳞翅目幼虫 Lepodoptera larvae 5 25 (0.07) + 1 5 (0.02) +
等翅目 Isoptera 1 5 (0.01) + 4 20 (0.07) +
地蜈蚣目 Geophilomorpha 2 10 (0.03) + 2 10 (0.03) +
后孔寡毛目 Oligochaetaopisthopora 4 20 (0.06) + 0 0
双翅目成虫 Diptera adult 1 5 (0.01) + 1 5 (0.02) +
直翅目 Orthptera 0 0 1 5 (0.02) +
啮目 Psocoptera 1 5 (0.01) + 0 0
蜈蚣目 Scolopendromorpha 1 5 (0.01) + 0 0
腹足纲 Gastropoda 1 5 (0.01) + 0 0
总数 Total 6,901 34,079 5,868 28,978

表2

大金山岛各植被类型中土壤动物群落组成和密度(ind./m2)"

类群
Group
竹林 Bamboo forest 乔木林 Arboreal forest 灌木林 Shrubbery
个体数
Indivi-
duals
密度
Density (%)
优势度
Domin-
ance
个体数
Indi-
viduals
密度
Density (%)
优势度
Domin-
ance
个体数
Indi-
viduals
密度
Density (%)
优势度
Domin-
ance
蜱螨亚纲 Acari 1,851 13,711 (60.65) +++ 2,929 21,696 (63.41) +++ 4,178 30,948 (81.95) +++
弹尾纲 Collembola 867 6,422 (28.41) +++ 1,087 8,052 (23.53) +++ 506 3,748 (9.93) ++
线虫纲 Nematoda 33 244 (1.08) ++ 169 1,252 (3.66) ++ 58 430 (1.14) ++
原尾纲 Protura 85 630 (2.79) ++ 85 630 (1.84) ++ 19 141 (0.37) +
线蚓科 Enchytraediae 12 89 (0.39) + 100 741 (2.16) ++ 72 533 (1.41) ++
半翅目 Hemiptera 3 22 (0.10) + 2 15 (0.04) + 131 970 (2.57) ++
膜翅目 Hymenoptera 36 267 (1.18) ++ 74 548 (1.60) ++ 23 170 (0.45) +
双翅目幼虫 Diptera larvae 37 274 (1.21) ++ 62 459 (1.34) ++ 26 193 (0.51) +
综合纲 Symphyla 24 178 (0.79) + 15 111 (0.32) + 13 96 (0.26) +
等足目 Isopoda 15 111 (0.49) + 20 148 (0.43) + 16 119 (0.31) +
少足纲 Pauropoda 33 244 (1.08) ++ 5 37 (0.11) + 6 44 (0.12) +
倍足纲 Diplopoda 18 133 (0.59) + 15 111 (0.32) + 8 59 (0.16) +
双尾纲 Diplura 2 15 (0.07) + 23 170 (0.50) + 7 52 (0.14) +
鞘翅目成虫 Coleoptera adult 10 74 (0.33) + 4 30 (0.09) + 7 52 (0.14) +
鞘翅目幼虫 Coleoptera larvae 7 52 (0.23) + 6 44 (0.13) + 4 30 (0.08) +
拟蝎目 Pseudoscorpionida 1 7 (0.03) + 11 81 (0.24) + 1 7 (0.02) +
石蜈蚣目 Lithobiomorpha 7 52 (0.23) + 4 30 (0.09) + 1 7 (0.02) +
蜘蛛目 Araneae 1 7 (0.03) + 4 30 (0.09) + 5 37 (0.10) +
缨翅目 Thysanoptera 2 15 (0.07) + 2 15 (0.04) + 2 15 (0.04) +
鳞翅目幼虫 Lepodoptera larvae 2 15 (0.07) + 0 0 4 30 (0.08) +
等翅目 Isoptera 0 0 0 0 5 37 (0.10) +
地蜈蚣目 Geophilomorpha 1 7 (0.03) + 1 7 (0.02) + 2 15 (0.04) +
后孔寡毛目 Oligochaetaopisthopora 4 30 (0.13) + 0 0 0 0
双翅目成虫 Diptera adult 0 0 0 0 2 15 (0.04) +
直翅目 Orthptera 0 0 1 7 (0.02) + 0 0
啮目 Psocoptera 0 0 0 0 1 7 (0.02) +
蜈蚣目 Scolopendromorpha 1 7 (0.13) + 0 0 0 0
腹足纲 Gastropoda 0 0 0 0 1 7 (0.02)
合计 Total 3,052 22,607 (100) 4,619 34,215 (100) 5,098 37,763 (100)

图2

大金山岛不同植被类型下土壤动物群落生态指数(平均值 ± 标准差)。字母不同表示差异显著(P = 0.05)。ZL: 竹林; QML: 乔木林; GML: 灌木林。"

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