生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 218-225.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016281

• • 上一篇    

青藏高原与横断山被子植物区系演化的 细胞地理学特征

王家坚1, 彭智邦1, 孙航2, 聂泽龙1, 孟盈1,,A;*   

  1. 1 吉首大学生物资源与环境科学学院植物资源保护与利用重点实验室, 湖南吉首 416000
    2 中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚植物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-29 接受日期:2016-11-28 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-06
  • 通讯作者: 孟盈
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31560060, 31270273)

Cytogeographic patterns of angiosperms flora of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountains

Jia-Jian Wang1, Zhi-Bang Peng1, Hang Sun2, Ze-Long Nie1, Ying Meng1,*   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Utilization, College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou, Hunan 416000
    2 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2016-09-29 Accepted:2016-11-28 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-06
  • Contact: Meng Ying

摘要:

青藏高原与横断山集特殊的地理位置和复杂的地形地势以及高度丰富的植物区系成分于一体, 成为世界上研究生物多样性起源与演化的热点地区之一。我们对这一地区被子植物的染色体数据进行了全面的统计分析, 结果表明新多倍体在该地区只约占23%的比例, 远低于其他高山地区, 这可能是由于这一地区特殊的地质历史或者复杂的地形和生境等因素所导致的。低基数的二倍体占近一半的比例(43.3%), 说明了二倍体水平上的染色体结构和核型进化也是本地区物种分化的另一重要机制。古多倍体, 即高基数二倍体, 也占有较大的成分(33.7%)。本地区物种在细胞学遗传演化途径上的多样性与这一地区极高的物种多样性和特有性可能存在一定的联系。通过对青藏高原及横断山地区被子植物区系进化中染色体演化机制的研究, 为探讨东亚以及北半球其他植物区系物种进化、高山植物区系起源和演化等许多重大问题提供了有益的帮助。

关键词: 青藏高原, 细胞地理, 染色体进化, 多倍体, 被子植物

Abstract:

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountains is an important hotspot to study the origin and evolution of plant biodiversity, which is characterized by high species richness and endemism, as well as a unique location and complicated topography. Based on a comprehensive survey of the chromosome numbers of angiosperms from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Hengduan Mountains, our results indicated that the frequency of neopolyploids (23%) was much lower than expected. This was likely caused by the unique history, geology, and complicated topography and habitat. Another mechanism of chromosomal evolution is on the diploidy level (ca. 43.3%), with variations of chromosomal restructure and karyotype. The number of paleopolyploids (diploids with high base numbers) was large in plants from this mountain area (33.7%). The diversity of chromosomal evolution patterns of angiosperms from this region may be correlated to the high level of species richness and endemism. This study provides useful insight into our understanding of speciation, the origins of alpine flora and other important issues in eastern Asia and other regions in the Northern Hemisphere.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, cytogeography, chromosomal evolution, polyploidy, angiosperm