生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 325-331.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016148

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灵长类动物对植物种子的传播作用

陈远1, 王征2, 向左甫1,*()   

  1. 1 .中南林业科技大学生命科学与技术学院, 长沙 410004
    2 .南京林业大学生物与环境学院, 南京 210037
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-02 接受日期:2017-01-11 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-04-07
  • 通讯作者: 向左甫
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD03-02)、国家自然科学基金(31670397)和国家林业局野生动物保护与繁育项目

Seed dispersal by primates

Yuan Chen1, Zheng Wang2, Zuofu Xiang1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Science and Technology, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    2 College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
  • Received:2016-06-02 Accepted:2017-01-11 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-04-07
  • Contact: Xiang Zuofu

摘要:

种子传播对植物种群空间分布和群落生物多样性维系有着深远的影响。森林灵长类动物可有效地传播植物种子, 其对果实的选择不仅受其自身形态、生理和行为特征的影响, 也与果实的形态特征和同域分布的其他动物类群的取食竞争密切相关。灵长类动物传播种子的模式可分为消化道传播、携带传播和颊囊传播, 其中消化道传播距离远、种子萌发或幼苗建成率高, 是最为有效的传播模式。灵长类动物对种子的传播作用还能促进退化生境的恢复。建议今后研究中应考虑灵长类动物的多途径种子传播和多种因素对种子扩散与萌发的综合影响, 同时要更加客观地评估灵长类动物缺失对森林植被更新的影响。

关键词: 灵长类动物, 食果过程, 种子传播, 植被更新, 生物多样性保护

Abstract:

Seed dispersal facilitates the recruitment of plants, which has profound influences upon the spatial distribution of forest plants and the maintenance of biodiversity. Recently, the role of primates in the process of seed dispersal has been increasingly studied. Primates play an important and special role in plant recruitment and vegetation regeneration in the form of feeding on fruits and dispersing seeds. The selection of different fruits is not only closely related to the quality of fruits and the feeding competition of sympatric animals, but also varies greatly with morphological, physiological, and behavioral features of different primates. According to the processes of fruit treatment, the patterns of seed dispersal by primates can be classified as endozoochory, epizoochory, and synzoochory. These patterns have different effects on the distance of seed dispersal, seed germination, and the establishment of seedlings. The most effective pattern is endozoochory, characterized by long-distance dispersal and high rates of seed germination and seedling establishment. Seed dispersal by many primate species helps to restore degraded habitats. Studies on the ecological processes of seed dispersal by primates and determined factors would be conducive to determine the role of primates in the forest ecological system, the contribution of primates to vegetation regeneration, and to provide theoretical evidence for forest ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation.

Key words: primates, frugivory, seed dispersal, vegetation regeneration, biodiversity conservation