生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 875-887.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016108

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黄山亚热带常绿阔叶林的群落特征

丁晖1, *, 方炎明2, *, 杨新虎3, 袁发银2, 何立恒4, 姚剑飞3, 吴俊3, 迟斌3, 李垚2, 陈水飞1, 陈婷婷1, 5, 徐海根1, **()   

  1. 1 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所自然保护与生物多样性研究中心, 国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京 210042
    2 南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心, 生物与环境学院, 南京 210037
    3 黄山风景区管理委员会园林局, 安徽黄山 245800
    4 南京林业大学土木工程学院, 南京 210037
    5 南京信息工程大学院应用气象学院, 南京 210044
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-19 接受日期:2016-08-10 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 丁晖,方炎明,徐海根 E-mail:xhg@nies.org
  • 基金项目:
    中央级科学事业单位修缮购置专项“全国生物多样性野外监测示范基地修缮项目二期”和环境保护部事业费项目“生物多样性保护专项”

Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

Hui Ding1, *, Yanming Fang2, *, Xinhu Yang3, Fayin Yuan2, Liheng He4, Jianfei Yao3, Jun Wu3, Bin Chi3, Yao Li2, Shuifei Chen1, Tingting Chen1, 5, Haigen Xu1, **()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 Southern Modern Forestry Collaborative Innovation Center/College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    3 Garden Bureau, Mount Huangshan Scenic Area Management Committee, Huangshan, Anhui 245800
    4 School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037
    5 College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044
  • Received:2016-04-19 Accepted:2016-08-10 Online:2016-08-20
  • Contact: Ding Hui,Fang Yanming,Xu Haigen E-mail:xhg@nies.org

黄山是我国东部高山之一, 处于亚热带季风气候区, 属南北植物区系交替的过渡带, 是第四纪冰期动植物的避难所。其地带性植被为常绿阔叶林, 植被垂直分布明显, 是中国生物多样性保护优先区域, 也是世界文化与自然遗产地以及享誉全球的风景名胜区。2014年, 我们在黄山建立了10.24 ha的森林动态监测样地, 并完成了首次调查。本文从物种组成、区系特征、径级结构和空间分布格局等方面分析了样地中植物的群落特征。结果表明: 样地内有维管植物59科129属191种, 其中乔木层内胸径≥ 1 cm的木本植物46科97属153种; 热带性质的科、属分别占总科、属数的65.79%和45.36%, 温带性质的科、属分别占34.21%和51.55%。样地内珍稀濒危物种较多, 其中国家II级重点保护野生植物6种、《中国生物多样性红色名录——高等植物卷》中的近危物种7种、《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)附录II物种1种以及64种中国特有种, 这些物种具有较高的保护和研究价值。当取样面积小于2,150 m2时, 物种数随着面积的增加而急剧增加; 其后增加速率明显降低; 但大于57,950 m2时, 增加速率又略变大。稀有种69种, 占总树种数的45.10%。壳斗科和杜鹃花科的重要值占一半以上。建群种甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)的重要值达26.25%, 其次分别为细齿叶柃(Eurya nitida) (7.63%)、马银花(Rhododendron ovatum) (7.60%)、马尾松(Pinus massoniana) (6.29%)和檵木(Loropetalum chinense) (4.83%)。样地平均胸径为4.10 cm, 小径木的数量占较大优势。乔木层可分为两个亚层, 甜槠在两个亚层的个体数量均最多, 马尾松数量也比较多。甜槠、细齿叶柃、马银花、马尾松等均呈较显著的聚集分布。

关键词: 森林动态监测样地, 中亚热带常绿阔叶林, 物种组成, 区系特征, 稀有种

Located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, Huangshan is one of the high mountains in eastern China and lies in the transition zone of north-south flora. It is considered a refuge of flora and fauna during the Quaternary maximum glaciation. Zonal vegetation is classified as evergreen broad-leaved forest with a vertical distribution pattern. It is not only one of China’s Biodiversity Conservation Priority Areas, but also one of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites and a world famous scenic spot. In 2014, we established a large-scale forest dynamics plot with an area of 10.24 ha in Huangshan based on international protocols (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS) and completed the first field survey. The investigation aimed at revealing community characteristics by analyzing species composition, flora characteristics, diameter class structure, and spatial distribution patterns. We recorded 191 species of vascular plants, belonging to 59 families and 129 genera, in the plot. Among these, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm) belonged to 46 families, 97 genera and 153 species. The number of family and genera with tropical distributions accounted for 65.79% and 45.36% of the total taxa, respectively, while those with temperate distributions accounted for 34.21% and 51.55%, respectively. A number of rare and endangered species occurred in the plots, including six species classified as Class II of State Key Protected Wild Plants, seven threatened species (VU) from the China’s Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plant, one species defined in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Appendix II), and 64 endemic species to China, indicating their values for protection and research. We also found that the number of species increased sharply with increasing scale when the scale was less than 2,150 m2, while at a higher resolution its rate of increase decreased significantly. When the scale was larger than 57,950 m2, the rate of increase declined slightly. Rare species (N = 69, less than 1 ind./ha) reached 45.10% of the total number of individuals. Members of Fagaceae and Ericaceae comprised more than half of the total importance values (IV). The IV of Castanopsis eyrei, a constructive species, was 26.25%, and followed by Eurya nitida (7.63%), Rhododendron ovatum (7.6%), Pinus massoniana (6.29%) and Loropetalum chinense (4.83%). The mean DBH for all the individuals was 4.10 cm, and small sized trees dominated the plot. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers, individuals of C. eyrei were dominant in both layers, while P. massoniana was a subdominant species. Castanopsis eyrei, E. nitida, R. ovatum and P. massoniana had a significant clustered distribution.

Key words: forest dynamics plot, mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, species composition, floristic characteristics, rare species

图1

黄山森林动态监测样地的地形图"

表1

黄山森林动态监测样地乔木植物的科属分布类型"

分布类型 Areal-types 科数
No. of families
科的百分比
Percentage of
families (%)
属数
No. of genera
属的百分比
Percentage of
genera (%)
1. 广布 Cosmopolitan 8 - 0 -
2. 泛热带 Pantropic 15 32.61 19 19.59
3. 东亚(热带、亚热带)及热带南美间断
Tropical and Subtropical East Asia, (South) Tropical America disjuncted
4 8.70 5 5.15
4. 旧世界热带 Old World Tropic 2 4.35 5 5.15
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Australasia Oceania 2 4.35 3 3.09
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲 Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa 1 2.17 1 1.03
7. 热带亚洲 Tropical Asia 1 2.17 11 11.34
热带小计 Subtotal of Tropical (2-7) 25 65.79 44 45.36
8. 北温带 North Temperate 10 21.74 21 21.65
9. 东亚及北美间断 East Asia and North America disjuncted 1 2.17 15 15.46
10. 旧世界温带 Old World Temperate 0 0.00 3 3.09
14. 东亚 East Asia 2 4.35 11 11.34
温带小计 Subtotal of Temperate (8-14) 13 34.21 50 51.55
15. 中国特有 Endemic to China 0 0.00 3 3.09
合计 Total 46 100.00 97 100.00

图2

黄山森林动态监测样地的种-面积曲线。×: 实测值; ·: 模拟值。"

表2

黄山森林动态监测样地重要值排名前10位的科"


Family
重要值
Importance values (%)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2)
壳斗科 Fagaceae 33.66 188.41
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 17.59 19.17
山茶科 Theaceae 12.91 9.70
山矾科 Symplocaceae 6.59 5.72
松科 Pinaceae 6.29 39.12
金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 5.46 10.96
冬青科 Aquifoliaceae 3.77 7.74
樟科 Lauraceae 3.10 4.21
杉科 Taxodiaceae 2.36 15.15
安息香科 Styracaceae 1.84 2.45

表3

黄山森林动态监测样地重要值排位名前10位的物种"

种名
Species
重要值
Importance values (%)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2)
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 26.25 161.02
细齿叶柃 Eurya nitida 7.63 4.79
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 7.60 11.38
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 6.29 39.12
檵木 Loropetalum chinense 4.83 7.10
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 4.11 13.16
珍珠花 Lyonia ovalifolia 3.45 2.75
老鼠矢 Symplocos stellaris 2.55 2.31
短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 2.46 12.21
满山红 Rhododendron mariesii 2.38 1.61

图3

黄山森林动态监测样地不同径级(1-37 cm)个体分布"

图4

黄山森林动态监测样地物种的高度分布(≤ 22 m)"

表4

黄山森林动态监测样地不同乔木亚层中个体数排名前10位的物种"

第一亚层 The first sub-layer 第二亚层 The second sub-layer
物种 Species 个体数
No. of individuals
物种 Species 个体数
No. of individuals
甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 995 甜槠 Castanopsis eyrei 3,918
马尾松 Pinus massoniana 231 马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 1,435
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 209 檵木 Loropetalum chinense 1,175
短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 56 马尾松 Pinus massoniana 1,132
青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 52 青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glauca 984
枫香树 Liquidambar formosana 41 短柄枹栎 Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata 536
山槐 Albizia kalkora 30 香冬青 Ilex suaveolens 480
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 27 细齿叶柃 Eurya nitida 404
檵木 Loropetalum chinense 27 珍珠花 Lyonia ovalifolia 354
马银花 Rhododendron ovatum 15 杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 290
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