生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 888-895.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016079

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我国沿海棱鳀属鱼类的物种鉴定与系统发育

张静1, 4, 李渊2, 宋娜1, 林龙山2, 高天翔3, *()   

  1. 1 中国海洋大学水产学院, 山东青岛 266003
    2 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所海洋生物与生态实验室, 福建厦门 361005
    3 浙江海洋大学水产学院, 浙江舟山 316000
    4 集美大学水产学院, 福建厦门 361021
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-22 接受日期:2016-05-13 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 高天翔 E-mail:gaotianxiang0611@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303048)、全球变化与海气相互作用专项(GASI-02-SCS-YSWspr, GASI-02-SCS-YSWaut)和国家海洋局海洋国际合作及履约项目(2200207)

Species identification and phylogenetic relationship of Thryssa species in the coastal waters of China

Jing Zhang1, 4, Yuan Li2, Na Song1, Longshan Lin2, Tianxiang Gao3, *()   

  1. 1 Fisheries College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003
    2 Laboratory of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
    3 School of Fishery, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang 316000
    4 Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021
  • Received:2016-03-22 Accepted:2016-05-13 Online:2016-08-20
  • Contact: Gao Tianxiang E-mail:gaotianxiang0611@163.com

利用DNA条形码技术对中国沿海分布的6种棱鳀属(Thryssa)鱼类样品进行了物种鉴定, 并每种取5尾用于探讨该属系统发育关系。结果显示: 棱鳀属鱼类的主要形态鉴别特征为上颌骨伸达位置和第一鳃耙的下鳃耙数量。在525 bp的目的片段上有175个变异位点, 其中简约信息位点172个, 单一信息位点3个, 无插入缺失现象, 转换数为182, 颠换数为57。A+T含量明显高于G+C含量, 并且表现出明显的反G偏倚。结合GenBank中相关的同源序列进行比较发现, 所有序列明显分为10个组群, 表明已提交的棱鳀属鱼类COI基因序列中仍存在一定的问题。从各组群间的遗传距离和氨基酸遗传差异水平可以看出, 10个组群应为不同的有效种, 但是否存在隐存种还有待于进一步确定。从NJ树上可以看出, 长颌棱鳀(T. setirostris)是最先分化出的物种, 保持着最原始的特征, 而中颌棱鳀(T. mystax)与黄吻棱鳀(T. vitrirostris)聚类到一起, 二者间存在共享单倍型。棱鳀属鱼类最早分化于中新世早期。在今后的研究中仍需要结合更多的分子标记对中颌棱鳀和黄吻棱鳀的分类地位作进一步的探讨。

关键词: 棱鳀属, 系统发育关系, DNA条形码, 遗传距离, 形态学

Six Thryssa species were collected from Chinese coastal waters for morphological description and phylogenetic relationships analysis. Results indicated that the position of maxillary extend and number of lower gill rake in the first gill rake were the main morphological characteristics for the identification of six Thryssa species. Mitochondrial COI gene fragments were amplified and sequenced for thirty individuals of Thryssa species. A 525 bp sequence was obtained, containing 175 variable sites, which determines 172 parsimony informative sites, 3 singleton sites, no indels/deletions, 182 transitions, and 57 transversions. An obvious anti-G biasness was noted from the base composition of A and T higher than that of G and C. Comparing homologous sequences from GenBank with our study validates that there are variations among Thryssa species based on the COI sequence. Moreover ten absolute groups were also identified in all sequences based on genetic differences in amino acids and genetic distances between groups. However, this requires further investigation to determine whether there are uncovered cryptic species. The NJ tree indicated that T. setirostris was the first species derived from the genus, and sequences of T. mystax were disorderly clustered with that of T. vitrirostris. The divergence date of Thryssa species presented here is early Miocene. It is suggested that more molecular markers be needed to clarify variations in T. mystax and T. vitrirostris in the future.

Key words: Thryssa, phylogenetic relationship, DNA barcoding, genetic distance, morphology

表1

研究所用棱鳀属鱼类样品和相关序列信息"

种名
Species
本研究 This study 引用序列号
Accession no.
地点
Sampling sites
采样时间
Sampling time
编号
Number
赤鼻棱鳀
T. kammalensis
福建省晋江市
Jinjiang, Fujian
2014.3 CB1-CB5 EF607590-607596, JN813096, JQ738607-738609, KF951618, KP260469, KP260453
中颌棱鳀
T. mystax
山东省东营市
Dongying, Shandong
2009.10 ZH1-ZH5 ———
杜氏棱鳀
T. dussumieri
福建省漳州市
Zhangzhou, Fujian
2013.5 DS1-DS5 JX983287-983289
长颌棱鳀
T. setirostris
福建省泉州市
Quanzhou, Fujian
2013.5 CH1-CH5 EF607597-607599, EU541324, JF494684-494688
汉氏棱鳀
T. hamiltonii
福建省晋江市
Jinjiang, Fujian
2013.11 HS1-HS5 EF607588, EF607589, JQ681498, EU148567-148570
黄吻棱鳀
T. vitrirostris
广东省江门市
Jiangmen, Guangdong
2013.3 HW1-HW5 JF494689-494693

表2

棱鳀属鱼类样品的体长范围和数量性状"

图1

基于单倍型构建黄吻棱鳀和中颌棱鳀的邻接系统发育树(方框内为共享单倍型)"

表3

6种棱鳀属鱼类线粒体COI片段的碱基组成及单倍型数量"

种类 Species 碱基组成 Nucleotide composition (%) 单倍型数量
Number of haplotypes
T(U) C A G
赤鼻棱鳀 T. kammalensis 31.6 25.3 25.5 17.5 1
中颌棱鳀 T. mystax 30.3 26.1 26.1 17.5 2
杜氏棱鳀 T. dussumieri 28.4 26.2 26.6 18.8 2
长颌棱鳀 T. setirostris 28.8 27.1 25.3 18.9 2
汉氏棱鳀 T. hamiltonii 30.3 25.1 25.0 19.6 2
黄吻棱鳀 T. vitrirostris 30.3 26.1 26.1 17.5 3
平均 Average 29.9 26.1 25.5 18.5 -

图2

构建棱鳀属鱼类邻接系统发育树"

表4

基于COI基因序列10个组群的组内、组间的遗传距离和分化时间(百万年)"

组群1
Group 1
组群2
Group 2
组群3
Group 3
组群4
Group 4
组群5
Group 5
组群6
Group 6
组群7
Group 7
组群8
Group 8
组群9
Group 9
组群10
Group 10
组群1 Group 1 0.001 2.83 2.75 13.58 15.75 15.25 15.33 15.08 13.92 14.50
组群2 Group 2 0.034 0.001 4.00 14.42 15.17 14.00 14.42 15.00 15.33 15.83
组群3 Group 3 0.033 0.048 - 13.58 14.50 14.92 16.75 16.17 14.83 15.50
组群4 Group 4 0.163 0.173 0.163 0.004 15.50 16.08 17.33 14.75 16.25 16.33
组群5 Group 5 0.189 0.182 0.174 0.186 0.002 16.83 17.83 15.83 15.42 17.00
组群6 Group 6 0.183 0.168 0.179 0.193 0.202 0.001 12.25 15.50 15.50 16.33
组群7 Group 7 0.184 0.173 0.201 0.208 0.214 0.147 0.003 14.25 15.92 16.17
组群8 Group 8 0.181 0.180 0.194 0.177 0.190 0.186 0.171 0.003 17.42 16.08
组群9 Group 9 0.167 0.184 0.178 0.195 0.185 0.186 0.191 0.209 - 13.67
组群10 Group 10 0.174 0.190 0.186 0.196 0.204 0.196 0.194 0.193 0.164 0.001
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