生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 475-488.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016022

所属专题: 中国西南干旱河谷的植物多样性

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

西南干旱河谷植物多样性资源的保护与利用

沈泽昊1, *(), 张志明2, 胡金明3, 韩杰1, 杨济达2, 应凌霄1   

  1. 1 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871。
    2 云南大学生态与环境学院, 昆明 650091。
    3 云南大学国际河流与生态安全研究院, 昆明 650091。
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-21 接受日期:2016-04-13 出版日期:2016-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)

Protection and utilization of plant biodiversity resources in dry valleys of Southwest China

Zehao Shen1, *(), Zhiming Zhang2, Jinming Hu3, Jie Han2, Jida Yang2, Lingxiao Ying1   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    2 College of Ecology and Environment, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091.
    3 College of International River and Ecological Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
  • Received:2016-01-21 Accepted:2016-04-13 Online:2016-04-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

西南干旱河谷是分布于我国亚热带横断山区的隐域性河谷景观, 其环境受季风气候、岭-谷地形环境和人类开发活动的共同影响。适应于季节性干旱和垂直气候分异, 干旱河谷具有独特的植被和丰富的物种多样性资源。在过去几十年中, 干旱河谷的气候变化以增温为一致特征, 同时经历着广泛的人类活动干扰, 特别是道路建设、水利工程、矿山开发和城镇化驱动的土地利用变化, 造成了普遍的植被破坏、生境退化和生物入侵, 给乡土植物多样性资源和生态系统稳定性带来了严重威胁, 然而至今对干旱河谷生物多样性的保护仍基本属于空白。因此, 建议及时建立干旱河谷的生物多样性保护体系; 因地制宜采取退化植被修复、立体农业规划、特色植物资源利用和风景旅游开发等措施, 以维持干旱河谷生态系统的可持续性; 落实生态文明建设的相关政策, 以保障西南生态屏障的生态安全和生态服务能力。

关键词: 干旱河谷, 植物多样性, 气候变化, 土地利用, 环境胁迫, 生态系统保护, 资源利用, 政策

The dry valleys of Southwest China specifically refer to a type of azonal landscape distributed in the large river basins of the Hengduan Mountain ranges, and are the outcome of the effects of the monsoon climate, ridge-valley geomorphology, and long-term human perturbations. The dry valley landscape is characterized by prominent seasonal aridity, a vertical climate gradient, rich flora of high endemism, and unique vegetation types well adapted to the distinct environment. The environmental change in the last decades is characterized by consistent climate warming and widespread anthropogenic disturbances, especially land use/land cover changes mainly driven by road building, hydro-power construction, mining, and urbanization. These human disturbances intensified vegetation fragmentation, soil erosion, habitat degradation and biological invasion. Environmental degradation has threatened biodiversity resources and ecosystem security while the conservation measures for this unique ecosystem are lacking. We appeal for attention and timely action of biodiversity conservation in the dry valleys of Southwest China by means of establishing natural reserves. Meanwhile, contingent planning for vertical agriculture, degraded vegetation restoration, utilization program for the unique species resource and ecotourism are critical maintaining the sustainability of the dry valley ecosystems. Moreover, the policy and strategy under the goal of ecological civilization construction are also important tools to be applied in promoting ecosystem services and ecological security in the dry valleys of Southwest China.

Key words: dry valleys, plant diversity, climate change, land use, environmental stress, ecosystem conservation, resource utilization, policy

图1

我国西南地区气候特征空间格局。(a)年生物温度(ABT, °C); (b)年降水量(AP, mm)。据刘晔等(2016)作图。"

图2

西南干旱河谷及中国亚热带其他地区植物区系热带成分与温带成分在属水平上的比值。数据分别来自刘晔等(2016)和沈泽昊和张新时(2000)。"

图3

干旱河谷典型台站过去42年(1971-2012年)降水量的变化趋势。炉霍(3,250 m a.s.l.)、茂县(1,590 m a.s.l.)、元江(400 m a.s.l.)站分别代表了“干温”、“干暖”、“干热”河谷类型。(数据来源: 国家气象信息中心)"

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