生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 102-107.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015256

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中国石松类和蕨类植物的多样性与地理分布

周喜乐1, 张宪春2, 孙久琼2, 严岳鸿1, , A;*   

  1. 1 (上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602)
    2 (中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093);
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-18 接受日期:2015-12-29 出版日期:2016-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 严岳鸿
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 科技部基础性工作专项(2015FY110200)

Diversity and distribution of lycophytes and ferns in China

Xile Zhou1, Xianchun Zhang2, Jiuqiong Sun2, Yuehong Yan1, *   

  1. 1 Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602
    2 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2015-09-18 Accepted:2015-12-29 Online:2016-01-20
  • Contact: Yan Yuehong

物种编目及其科属系统排列是了解生物多样性的基础, 本文采用Flora of China使用的分类系统, 结合最新分子分类学研究成果以及近几年发表的新资料, 对中国石松类和蕨类植物多样性和地理分布数据进行了统计和分析。结果表明中国共有石松类和蕨类植物40科178属2,147种5个亚种118个变种, 其中特有种839个, 占总种数的39.08%。种数最多的5个科依次为鳞毛蕨科(505种, 含种下单位, 下同)、蹄盖蕨科(323种)、水龙骨科(280种)、凤尾蕨科(266种)和金星蕨科(209种); 种数最多的5个属依次为耳蕨属(Polystichum, 209种)、鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris, 176种)、蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium, 137种)、双盖蕨属(Diplazium, 98种)和凤尾蕨属(Pteris, 97种)。在地理分布上, 种数排名前5的省份为云南(1,365种)、四川(875种)、贵州(838种)、广西(785种)和台湾(779种)。含中国特有石松类和蕨类植物的科属中, 排前3位的科分别为鳞毛蕨科(257种)、蹄盖蕨科(169种)和凤尾蕨科(113种); 排前3位的属为耳蕨属(140种)、蹄盖蕨属(82种)和鳞毛蕨属(61种)。

关键词: 植物分类学, 保护生物地理学, 生物多样性, 保护生物学, 蕨类植物

The species catalogue and phylogenetic arrangement are the basis of species diversity studies. We collated the latest lycophytes and ferns in China found in recent years using the system from Flora of China. There are 2,147 species, 5 subspecies, 118 varieties, 178 genera and 40 families of lycophytes and ferns in China, including 839 endemic species, which accounts for 39.08% of total species. The top five families are Dryopteridaceae (505 species, including subspecies and varieties), Athyriaceae (323 species), Polypodiaceae (280 species), Pteridaceae (266 species) and Thelypteridaceae (209 species). The top five genera are Polystichum (209 species), Dryopteris (176 species), Athyrium (137 species), Diplazium (98 species) and Pteris (97 species). The following five provinces are rich in lycophytes and ferns: Yunnan (1,365 species), Sichuan (875 species), Guizhou (838 species), Guangxi (785 species) and Taiwan (779 species). Endemic species are rich in families including Dryopteridaceae (257 species), Athyriaceae (169 species), and Pteridaceae (113 species) and genera of Polystichum (140 species), Athyrium (82 species), and Dryopteris (61 species).

Key words: plant taxonomy, conservation biogeography, biodiversity, conservation biology, pteridophytes

表1

中国各省(市、自治区)石松类和蕨类植物多样性及特有种统计"

省(市、自治区)
Province

Species

Genus

Family
中国特有种Number of Chinese endemic species (CES) 占本地区种数比例
Ratio of CES in each province
仅产本地区
Number of local endemic species (LES)
占本地区中国特有种比例
Ratio of LES/CES
国内仅产本地区且国外有分布
Number of species distrbute only in this province and abroad
云南 Yunnan 1,365 (60.13%) 148 (83.15%) 40 (100.00%) 414 30.33 181 43.72 77
四川 Sichuan 875 (38.55%) 116 (65.17%) 36 (90.00%) 284 32.46 54 19.01 1
贵州 Guizhou 838 (36.92%) 119 (66.85%) 36 (90.00%) 227 27.09 31 13.66 1
广西 Guangxi 785 (34.58%) 125 (70.22%) 36 (90.00%) 157 20.00 23 14.65 5
台湾 Taiwan 779 (34.32%) 145 (81.46%) 39 (97.50%) 107 13.74 59 55.14 89
湖南 Hunan 663 (29.20%) 110 (61.80%) 35 (87.50%) 180 27.15 6 3.33 0
西藏 Tibet 579 (25.51%) 104 (58.43%) 33 (82.50%) 121 20.90 49 40.50 14
广东 Guangdong 566 (24.93%) 117 (65.73%) 32 (80.00%) 95 16.78 9 9.47 2
重庆 Chongqing 535 (23.57%) 93 (52.25%) 33 (82.50%) 154 28.79 9 5.84 0
海南 Hainan 451 (19.87%) 113 (63.48%) 33 (82.50%) 62 13.75 33 53.23 19
江西 Jiangxi 442 (19.47%) 96 (53.93%) 33 (82.50%) 85 19.23 2 2.35 0
浙江 Zhejiang 431 (18.99%) 98 (55.06%) 35 (87.50%) 88 20.42 7 7.95 3
福建 Fujian 409 (18.02%) 100 (56.18%) 31 (77.50%) 67 16.38 4 5.97 1
湖北 Hubei 372 (16.39%) 80 (44.94%) 29 (72.50%) 102 27.42 5 4.90 0
甘肃 Gansu 254 (11.19%) 64 (35.96%) 25 (62.50%) 65 25.59 3 4.62 0
安徽 Anhui 237 (10.44%) 69 (38.76%) 26 (65.00%) 39 16.46 0 0.00 1
陕西 Shaanxi 231 (10.18%) 56 (31.46%) 22 (55.00%) 62 26.84 0 0.00 0
河南 Henan 218 (9.60%) 62 (34.83%) 25 (62.50%) 46 21.10 1 2.17 0
香港 Hongkong 212 (9.34%) 77 (43.26%) 29 (72.50%) 16 7.55 0 0.00 0
江苏 Jiangsu 151 (6.65%) 59 (33.15%) 26 (65.00%) 18 11.92 0 0.00 0
河北 Hebei 112 (4.93%) 39 (21.91%) 18 (45.00%) 26 23.21 0 0.00 0
辽宁 Liaoning 110 (4.85%) 41 (23.03%) 19 (47.50%) 10 9.09 0 0.00 2
吉林 Jilin 107 (4.71%) 38 (21.35%) 17 (42.50%) 6 5.61 2 33.33 1
山西 Shanxi 99 (4.36%) 35 (19.66%) 17 (42.50%) 24 24.24 0 0.00 0
山东 Shandong 97 (4.27%) 38 (21.35%) 19 (47.50%) 19 19.59 2 10.53 0
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 89 (3.92%) 34 (19.10%) 17 (42.50%) 4 4.49 1 25.00 3
澳门 Macao 76 (3.35%) 46 (25.84%) 24 (60.00%) 2 2.63 0 0.00 0
内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 72 (3.17%) 25 (14.04%) 15 (37.50%) 11 15.28 0 0.00 0
北京 Beijing 71 (3.13%) 27 (15.17%) 17 (42.50%) 15 21.13 0 0.00 0
新疆 Xinjiang 57 (2.51%) 22 (12.36%) 14 (35.00%) 3 5.26 0 0.00 6
青海 Qinghai 52 (2.29%) 20 (11.24%) 13 (32.50%) 11 21.15 0 0.00 0
上海 Shanghai 51 (2.25%) 31 (17.42%) 17 (42.50%) 2 3.92 0 0.00 0
宁夏 Ningxia 40 (1.76%) 19 (10.67%) 12 (30.00%) 7 17.50 0 0.00 0
天津 Tianjin 29 (1.28%) 15 (8.43%) 12 (30.00%) 5 17.24 0 0.00 0
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