生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 40-47.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015248

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哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林木质藤本对边缘效应的响应

袁春明1, 2, 耿云芬1, 2, 柴勇1, 郝佳波1, 2, 吴涛1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 (云南省林业科学院, 昆明 650204)
    2 (国家林业局云南珍稀濒特森林植物保护和繁育重点实验室, 云南省森林植物培育与利用重点实验室,昆明 650204);
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-15 接受日期:2015-12-08 出版日期:2016-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 吴涛 E-mail:ynafw@126.com
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31160136)

Response of lianas to edge effects in mid-montane moist evergreen broad- leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, SW China

Chunming Yuan1, 2, Yunfen Geng1, 2, Yong Chai1, Jiabo Hao1, 2, Tao Wu1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650204
    2 Key Laboratory for Conservation of Rare, Endangered and Endemic Forest Plants in Yunnan of State Forestry Administration, Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory for Cultivation and Utilization of Forest Plants, Kunming 650204
  • Received:2015-09-15 Accepted:2015-12-08 Online:2016-01-20
  • Contact: Wu Tao E-mail:ynafw@126.com

全球范围内森林片断化现象日益严重。与其他木本植物(乔木和灌木)相比, 木质藤本更趋向于分布在片断化森林的边缘, 因而了解木质藤本对边缘效应的响应对于进一步了解其对森林动态的影响极其必要。本文对哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林林缘到林内环境梯度上木质藤本的变化进行了调查。在形成年龄分别为13年、35年和53年的3种类型的林缘, 设置从林缘向林内连续延伸的长方形样地(20 m × 50 m)各10个(总面积3 ha), 每个样地再划分为5个20 m × 10 m的样方。在每个样方内对胸径≥ 0.2 cm且长度≥ 2.0 m的木质藤本进行了每木调查。在3 ha的林缘样地中共记录到木质藤本植物2,426株, 隶属于14科19属31种。木质藤本的物种丰富度和多度均随距林缘距离的增加而降低, 边缘效应深度在35年林缘的边缘为30 m, 13和53年林缘的边缘则为20 m; 它们的胸高断面积在53年林缘的边缘效应深度为20 m, 但在13和35年林缘的不同距离上差异不显著。木质藤本对边缘效应的响应在物种水平上存在显著差异, 主要呈现正向和中性的响应格局, 包括只分布于林缘的物种, 和从林缘到林内环境梯度上密度逐渐降低的物种; 也有对边缘效应不敏感的物种。典范对应分析(CCA)表明, 林冠开度、边缘形成年龄和土壤水分是决定木质藤本在片断化森林边缘分布的重要影响因子。

关键词: 木质藤本, 群落, 物种, 边缘效应, 亚热带森林

Forests are becoming increasingly fragmented worldwide. Compared to other woody plants (i.e., trees and shrubs), lianas are more concentrated near the edge than in the forest interior. Therefore, understanding how lianas respond to edge effects is important for predicting the impacts of lianas on forests dynamics. In this study, change of lianas on the edge-to-interior gradients was investigated in a subtropical mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains, SW China. Ten 20 m × 50 m transect sample plots were established in 13-, 35- and 53-year forest edges along the gradient situated perpendicular to the edges. Each plot was divided into five 20 m × 10 m quadrats, and those lianas with ≥ 2.0 m in length and ≥ 0.2 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured. We recorded a total of 2,426 individual lianas in the 3-ha sample plots, representing 31 species in 19 genera and 14 families. Our results are as follows: (1) Liana species richness and abundance decreased with increasing distance from the edge; the distance of edge effects for the 35-year forest edge was 30 m, and 20 m for 13- and 53-year forest edges. Liana breast height area in the 53-year forest edge was significantly higher within 20 m of the forest edge than in the forest interior, whereas there was no significant difference along the edge to interior gradient in the 13- and 35-year forest edges; (2) Liana species responded differently to edge effects, including species present exclusively at or near the edges (within 20 m of the edge), species density decreased with increasing distance from the edge, and species were insensitive to edge effects, which showed minor variation or random fluctuation throughout the gradient; and (3) Results from the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that canopy openness, edge age and soil moisture were the most important factors that determined the distribution of lianas at the forest edges.

Key words: lianas, community, species, edge effects, subtropical forest

图1

哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林从林缘到林内环境梯度上木质藤本的变化: (a)物种丰富度、(b)多度和(c)胸高断面积(平均值±标准差)"

表1

哀牢中山湿性常绿阔叶林丛林缘到林内环境梯度上木质藤本密度的变化(平均值±标准差)"

表2

特征值及环境变量与典范对应分析(CCA)前3个排序轴的相关系数"

项目 Items 排序轴1 Axis 1 排序轴2 Axis 2 排序轴3 Axis 3
特征值 Eigenvalues 0.350 0.176 0.131
变化的累积百分比 Cumulative percentage variance
物种数据 Species data 6.3 9.4 11.7
物种-环境关系 Species-environment relation 45.8 68.7 85.9
环境变量 Environmental variables
坡向 Aspect 0.2348 -0.0557 0.8233
海拔 Altitude 0.2724 -0.2123 -0.5633
林冠开度 Crown illumination 0.9655 0.1555 -0.0541
土壤水分 Soil moisture -0.3979 0.5921 -0.4261
边缘年龄 Edge age -0.0992 -0.6194 -0.0546

图2

基于30个样地木质藤本植物多度的典范对应分析排序图。CII, 林冠开度; SM, 土壤水分; SAI, 坡向; AGE, 边缘年龄; AL, 海拔高度。物种代码见表1。"

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