生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 185-194.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015188

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广东韩江潮州江段鱼类多样性及季节变化

林小植1, , A;*(), 李冬梅1, 刘焕章2, 林鸿生1, 杨少荣3, 范汉金4, 温茹淑5   

  1. 1 韩山师范学院, 广东潮州 521041
    2 中国科学院水生生物研究所水生生物多样性与保护重点实验室, 武汉 430072
    3 中国长江三峡集团公司, 成都 610041
    4 汕头市潮师高级中学, 广东汕头 515154
    5 嘉应学院, 广东梅州 514015;
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-03 接受日期:2015-09-27 出版日期:2016-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 林小植 E-mail:xiaozhilinok@sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31061160185)、韩山师范学院博士启动项目(QD20091211)、国家级星火计划项目(2012GA780063)和广东省省级科技计划项目(2013B060400025)

Fish species diversity and its seasonal variations in the Chaozhou section of Hanjiang River, Guangdong Province

Xiaozhi Lin1, *(), Dongmei Li1, Huanzhang Liu2, Hongsheng Lin1, Shaorong Yang3, Hanjin Fan4, Rushu Wen5   

  1. 1 Hanshan Normal University, Chaozhou, Guangdong 521041
    2 Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    3 China Three Gorges Corporation, Chengdu 610041
    4 Shantou Chaoshi Senior Middle School, Shantou, Guangdong 515154
    5 Jiaying University, Meizhou, Guangdong 514015
  • Received:2015-07-03 Accepted:2015-09-27 Online:2016-02-20
  • Contact: Lin Xiaozhi E-mail:xiaozhilinok@sina.com

为了解韩江潮州江段鱼类生物多样性及季节变化, 2012年5月至2013年4月, 采用定置刺网和地笼网对韩江潮州江段5个样点开展了渔获物调查。共采集鱼类53种, 隶属8目19科48属, 以鲤形目和鲈形目为主, 分别为27种和11种, 占总种数的50.9%和20.8%; 其中13种为该水域新记录种; 广东鲂(Megalobrama terminalis)、福建小鳔鮈(Microphysogobio fukiensis)、赤眼鳟(Squaliobarbus curriculus)和鲮(Cirrhinus molitorella)为全年优势种。Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀度指数(E)和Margalef种类丰富度指数(D)均表现出夏季最高, 其后依次是秋季、冬季、春季; Simpson指数(D')秋季最高, 其后是夏季、冬季、春季; Bray-Curtis尾数/种类相似性系数聚类分析和非度量多维标度分析在38.23%的水平上将12个月分为2个群聚: I包括夏、秋季节6个月, II包括春、冬季节6个月, 这与多样性指数H'E、DD'的变化趋势一致, 表明韩江潮州江段鱼类资源的季节变化显著, 水温和流量是影响该江段鱼类资源的主要环境因子。10个主要物种被聚合为两大类群, 分别为季节性出现的小型鱼类和常见种。我们认为保护栖息环境、建立适宜的禁渔制度是保护该江段鱼类资源的关键措施。

关键词: 韩江, 鱼类资源, 群落动态, 新记录种, 聚类分析

To understand the status of fish species diversity and seasonal variation in the Chaozhou section of Hanjiang River, a survey was carried out at five sample sites using fixed gillnets and cage nets from May 2012 to April 2013. In this study, 53 fish species, belonging to 8 orders, 19 families and 48 genera, were collected. Results indicated that Cypriniformes and Perciformes were the dominant groups with 27 and 11 species and accounting for 50.9% and 20.8% of the total species, respectively. Compared with earlier research, there were 13 new species recorded. The dominant species were Megalobrama terminalis, Microphysogobio fukiensis, Squaliobarbus curriculus and Cirrhinus molitorella, which accounted for 65.78% of the total samples. Shannon-Wiener index (H′), Pielou’s evenness index (E′) and Margalef richness index (D) were the highest in summer, followed by those in autumn, winter, and spring; Simpson index (D') was the highest in autumn, followed by those in summer, winter, and spring. A cluster analysis and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination of Bray-Curtis similarity data based on species and abundance showed that the 12 months could be divided into 2 groups at a 38.23% similarity level, i.e. group I comprised six months of summer and autumn, while group II comprised six months of spring and winter, which is consistent with the variations in the diversity indices H', E, D and D'. These results indicated significant seasonal variations in fish resources among seasons. Water temperature and flow were suggested as the key drivers on fish resources in this area. Based on their appearance, 10 major fish species can be divided into two groups; Group A was characterized by small fish that appeared seasonally, while group B contained common species. In addition, it proposes that the habitat protection and the establishment of appropriate fishing regulations are the key measures to protect fish stocks in the Chaozhou section of Hanjiang River.

Key words: Hanjiang River, fish resources, community dynamics, new record, cluster analysis

图1

韩江潮州江段鱼类资源调查站位图"

表1

韩江潮州江段优势种和重要种组成的季节变化"

种类
Species
春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter
W% N% IRI W% N% IRI W% N% IRI W% N% IRI
Carassius auratus 2.50 0.51 267.80 0.84 0.80 109.11 2.40 2.01 394.93
Cirrhinus molitorella 1.14 0.23 121.37 19.17 12.06 2,676.60 11.19 10.36 2,154.82 2.88 2.36 469.26
翘嘴鲌 Culter alburnus 2.28 1.47 321.28 2.36 2.24 358.05 0.86 0.72 116.84
Cyprinus carpio 5.66 0.42 540.25 4.21 0.98 444.50 1.69 0.58 201.42 2.99 0.91 307.46
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 3.37 0.07 153.01 2.81 0.19 128.56
露斯塔野鲮 Labeo rohita 6.53 1.66 454.96 3.34 0.75 323.01
Megalobrama skolkovii 3.25 0.26 234.51 2.81 0.72 151.20 4.15 1.55 380.25 2.95 0.98 269.16
广东鲂 Megalobrama terminalis 33.57 5.29 3,885.44 11.67 5.76 1,245.56 37.43 27.21 6,463.61 63.43 40.85 10,427.82
福建小鳔鮈 Microphysogobio fukiensis 7.31 58.08 6,539.52 0.75 24.37 528.75
飘鱼 Pseudolaubuca sinensis 2.37 2.35 367.22 3.03 2.66 119.92
银鮈 Squalidus argentatus 1.32 8.26 319.25 1.42 27.88 1,255.83 0.58 16.87 581.74
赤眼鳟 Squaliobarbus curriculus 9.49 2.47 1,062.61 32.28 26.30 5,021.27 18.84 22.60 4,144.31 3.01 3.20 588.04
黄尾鲴 Xenocypris davidi 20.58 2.64 2,321.77 1.87 0.75 150.04 6.02 3.16 628.27
大刺鳅 Mastacembelus armatus 1.21 4.71 507.71 0.27 1.55 121.80
莫桑比克罗非鱼 Oreochromis mossambicus 2.85 0.35 106.76
尼罗罗非鱼 Oreochromis niloticus 1.17 0.55 133.69 2.13 4.08 555.03
尖头塘鳢 Eleotris oxycephala 2.02 0.64 113.86
斑纹舌虾虎鱼 Glossogobius olivaceus 1.21 3.05 182.82
舌虾虎鱼 Glossogobiuss giuris 0.63 1.66 130.84
白边拟鲿 Pseudobagrus albomarginatus 5.83 1.54 421.64 9.97 3.89 1,077.89 1.46 0.50 113.87
瓦氏黄颡鱼 Pelteobagrus vachellii 0.42 0.78 119.64 0.43 2.49 249.91 0.27 2.30 228.01 0.66 4.98 445.39
子陵吻虾虎鱼 Rhinogobius giurinus 2.90 18.65 1,676.03

表2

韩江潮州江段鱼类群落多样性指数的季节变化"

春季
Spring
夏季
Summer
秋季
Autumn
冬季
Winter
全年
Annual
Simpson多样性指数 Simpson diversity index (D') 0.64 0.81 0.82 0.75 0.80
Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') 2.15 3.29 3.12 2.86 2.16
Pielou均匀度指数 Pielou evenness index (E) 0.41 0.61 0.60 0.52 0.54
Margalef 丰富度指数 Margalef species richness index (D) 3.86 5.43 4.52 5.03 5.08
物种数 No. of species 37 42 37 45 53

图2

韩江潮州江段12个月份鱼类丰度的聚类(左)和非度量多维标度排序分析图(右)。排序分析协强系数= 0.06。"

表3

在SIMPER分析中对鱼类群落类型平均相似性贡献率以及对组间差异贡献率≥ 5%的主要鱼类物种"

种类
Species
平均相似性 Average similarity 组I和组II间的平均差异
Average dissimilarity between I and II
I II
Cirrhinus molitorella 12.5
翘嘴鲌 Culter alburnus 5.37
广东鲂 Megalobrama terminalis 10.22 15.87 8.95
福建小鳔鮈 Microphysogobio fukiensis 23.90 22.16
银鮈 Squalidus argentatus 5.62 6.94
赤眼鳟 Squaliobarbus curriculus 14.51 6.66
黄尾鲴 Xenocypris davidi 7.81 5.43
瓦氏黄颡鱼 Pelteobagrus vachellii 5.63 5.21
白边拟鲿 Pseudobagrus albomarginatus 5.10
大刺鳅 Mastacembelus armatus 6.35
斑纹舌虾虎鱼 Glossogobius olivaceus 5.19
子陵吻虾虎鱼 Rhinogobius giurinus 5.56 8.41
贡献率合计 Total of contribution 70.49 65.01 51.89
组内相似性 Average similarity 55.52 60.88 60.53

图3

韩江潮州江段12个月10种主要鱼类物种(尾数百分比大于1%的)出现数目的聚类(左)和非度量多维标度排序分析图(右)。排序分析协强系数= 0.1。"

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