生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 527-535.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014152

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湿地生物多样性监测的指标体系和实施方法:以北美大湖湿地为例

吴燕平, 阳文静*()   

  1. 江西师范大学鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330022
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-29 接受日期:2015-05-15 出版日期:2015-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 阳文静 E-mail:yangwenjing@jxnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室(江西师范大学)主任开放基金(ZK2013002)、江西省重大生态安全问题监控协同创新中心建设经费(JXS-EW-00)和江西省青年科学基金(20142BAB213023)

Indicators and implementing methods of wetland biodiversity monitoring: taking Great Lakes coastal wetlands as an example

Yanping Wu, Wenjing Yang*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022
  • Received:2015-04-29 Accepted:2015-05-15 Online:2015-07-20

我国湖泊湿地面积大, 动植物资源十分丰富, 但受人类活动干扰强烈, 退化较为严重。湖泊湿地生物多样性监测是湖泊湿地生物多样性保护和研究的重要环节。在一些发达国家相关的工作已较为成熟, 我国尚处于起步探索阶段。本文介绍了北美大湖湿地生物多样性监测项目的指标体系和实施方法, 旨在为建立我国的湖泊湿地生物多样性监测网络提供借鉴与启示。北美大湖湿地共设置约1,500个监测样点, 研究人员通过每年对水体环境和五大生物类群(植物、底栖无脊椎动物、鱼类、两栖类、鸟类)进行野外调查和数据采集, 构建生物完整性指数(index of biotic integrity, IBI), 以评价大湖湿地生物多样性和生态环境健康的现状及未来的变化趋势, 为湿地的保护和管理提供重要依据。北美大湖湿地生物多样性监测方法不但具有较强的科学性和系统性, 并且可操作性强, 对构建我国湖泊湿地的生物多样性监测方案有参考价值。

关键词: 湖泊湿地, 生物多样性, 监测方案, 指标体系, 监测样点, 水质, 生物完整性指数

Lake wetlands are home to a wide variety of wildlife, including numerous species that are highly dependent on habitat and a big portion of them are classified as protected by law. However, lake wetlands are among the most functionally degraded ecosystems. Almost 40% of Chinese lake wetlands are threatened by various factors, including land development, input of pollutants, and hydrologic alterations. A monitoring network is essential for tracking changes in wetland biodiversity. Many developed countries have established regional or even national scale wetland monitoring systems, whereas China is still in the early stages of development. In this paper, we introduce indicators and implementing methods for coastal wetland biodiversity monitoring in the Great Lakes. Five biological groups (i.e. plants, macroinvertebrates, fishes, amphibians and birds) and water were sampled annually from c. 1,500 monitoring sites. Indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) were developed based on biological community data to assess the current status of and temporal trends in wetland health conditions. This project provides the scientific basis for biodiversity conservation and wetland management policy, and represents a good example for formulating a wetland biodiversity monitoring scheme in China.

Key words: lake wetlands, biodiversity, monitoring scheme, indicators, monitoring sites, water quality, index of biotic integrity (IBI)

表1

北美大湖湿地生物多样性监测的监测对象、具体指标和获取途径(改自GLCWLC, 2008)"

序号
No.
监测对象
Sample types
具体指标
Indicators
获取途径
Sources
1 水质
Water quality
电导率、pH值、溶解氧、温度、氧化还原性、浑浊度、透明度、硝态氮、亚硝态氮、铵态氮、总氮、可溶性磷、总磷、叶绿素a、碱度、氯化物
Specific conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, oxidation- reduction potential (redox), turbidity, transparency tube water clarity, nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll-a, alkalinity, chloride
野外采样和室内分析
Field sampling and laboratory analysis
2 植物多样性
Plant diversity
种类、物种盖度
Species, species coverage
野外调查
Field surveys
3 底栖无脊椎动物多样性
Macroinvertebrate diversity
科、属、科属个体数
Family, genus, number of individuals per family and genus
野外采样和室内鉴定
Field sampling and laboratory identification
4 鱼类多样性
Fish diversity
种类、物种个体数、年龄段(幼龄或成年)、体长
Species, number of individuals per species, age category (young or older), body length
野外调查
Field surveys
5 两栖类多样性
Amphibian diversity
种类、鸣叫声密集度
Species, calling intensity
野外调查
Field surveys
6 鸟类多样性
Bird diversity
种类、物种个体数
Species, number of individuals per species
野外调查
Field surveys
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