生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 409-415.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002056

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

农作物遗传多样性农家保护的现状及前景

卢宝荣, 朱有勇, 王云月   

  1. 1 (复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室,上海 200433)
    2 (云南农业大学植物病理重点实验室,教育部农业生物多样性与病害控制重点实验室,昆明 650201)
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-29 修回日期:2002-05-02 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 卢宝荣

The current status and perspectives of on farm conservation of crop genetic diversity

LU BaoRong*, ZHU YouYong, WANG YunYue   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering , Institute of Biodiversity Science , Fudan University , Shanghai 200433
    2 Minist ry of Education Key Laboratory of Agricul ture Biodiversity for Plant Disease Management ,Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology , Yunnan Agricul tural University , Kunming 650201
  • Received:2002-03-29 Revised:2002-05-02 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: LU BaoRong

农作物地方品种的有效保护是农业生物多样性可持续利用的基础。由于现代农业的集约化生产方式使大量农作物地方品种被少数高产改良品种所取代,造成农作物基因库的严重“基因流失”(genetic erosion)。农家保护是在农业生态系统中进行的动态保护,被保护的生物多样性可在其生境中继续进化而产生新的遗传变异,因而是农业生物多样性就地保护的重要途径。然而,尽管人们对作物品种资源农家保护的兴趣不断增长,也有大量有关农家保护的研究和案例分析,但目前为止还没有比较成功的农家保护实例报道。因此,对农家保护的机制及科学问题进行深入的研究,并寻求一条新的途径来充分发挥农家保护应有的作用,显得格外重要。利用生物多样性布局的水稻混合间栽的生产模式,不仅解决了病害控制的问题,而且也保护了水稻地方品种的多样性。这种混合间栽的生物多样性布局和生产方式可能成为农家保护的一条新途径。

关键词: 蚂蚁, 群落结构, 物种多样性, 生境, 曲阜

Effective conservation of traditional crop varieties is the basis of the long-term utilization of agricultural biodiversity, and will be one of the essential factors for the sustainable development of agriculture. Due to the intensive production practices in modern agriculture, a great number of traditional crop varieties have been rapidly replaced by the improved high-yielding varieties, which has caused severe “genetic erosion” in the genepool of crop species, and significantly reduced genetic diversity of crop varieties. It is therefore essential to preserve the shrinking crop biodiversity before it is completely lost. On-farm conservation is an important and dynamic in situ conservation method that conserves crop varieties in agricultural ecosystems. On-farm conservation can be defined as the continued cultivation and management of a diverse set of crop populations by farmers in the agro-ecosystems where a crophas evolved, and it allows the evolution of conserved crop varieties to be continued in their original habitats. However, in spite of the increasing interests in this method and a relatively large number of research and case studies reported in this field, there has been no significant achievement for on-farm conservation and many questions remain unanswered: Is on-farm conservation practical and achievable? Can on-farm conservation actually be conducted in modern agriculture? Is on-farm conservation a trade-off with agricultural development? What are the scientific issues for on-farm conservation? What incentives can their be for farmers to conserve genetic diversity in their farming ecosystems? All these questions need to be addressed scientifically with satisfaction when conducting effective on-farm conservation. It is therefore necessary to have a better understanding of on-farm conservation, to study mechanisms and scientific basis of on-farm conservation, and to be innovative to open a new dimension for on-farm conservation action. The biodiverse deployment of rice varieties, mixed planting of modern hybrid rice with traditional rice varieties in Yunnan Province, not only provided an excellent method of controlling rice disease and increasing rice productivity, but also demonstrated a powerful model for conserving traditional rice varieties in an effective and sustainable way. This model of mixed planting of a diverse set of crop varieties links farmer's long term benefit, socioeconomic concerns, and the actual conditions of locally based agro ecosystems appropriately with conservation activities. This model of using biodiversity to preserve biodiversity of crop varieties is a long term approach that will be sustainable and beneficial to farmers whose general living standard will be raised. It might provide possible solution for on-farm conservation of traditional rice varieties in a feasible and sustainable way., and probably has potential for other crop species, too.

Key words: ants, community structure, species diversity, habitat, Qufu

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