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Table of Content
    Volume 20 Issue 6
    20 November 2012

    The genus Rhododendron has 976 species, of which 576 are distributed in China. These species are famous ornamental plants and important components of the mountainous forest system in China. Affected by intensive human activities, Rhododendron plants are facing a severe threat. Ping Zhuang et al. evaluated the adaptability of five sub-genera and 172 Rhododendron species under ex situ conservation, aiming to provide a reference for their conservation (for details see pages 665–675 of this issue). The picture shows Rhododendron hunnewellianum which is endemic to western Sichuan. (Photographed by Fei Wang)

    Studies and conservation of crop wild relatives should be promoted
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  641-642.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.02234
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    Research Report
    Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China
    Jielin Ge, Gaoming Xiong, Longqiang Deng, Changming Zhao, Guozhen Shen, Zongqiang Xie
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  643-653.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.11053
    Abstract ( 3623 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (514KB) ( 2521 )   Save
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    Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus-Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in the mountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010) from a permanent 120 m × 80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzed the dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm). We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

    Species composition and diversity of epiphytes of several ecotones in Ailao Mountain National Nature Reserve, Yunnan
    Yuanlin Yao, Wenyao Liu, Wenzhang Ma, Liang Song
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  654-664.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.11073
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    Epiphytic bryophytes are sensitive to environmental factors and are important components of montane moist subtropical forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the biodiversity and distribution of bole epiphytic bryophytes in the ecotones among old growth forest (OGF) and three other forest types (i.e., old growth dwarf mossy forest (ODMF), 50-yr-secondary Lithocarpus forest (SLF), and secondary Populus bonatii forest (SPF) in the Xujiaba region of Ailao Mountains, Yunnan. We evaluated species composition, biodiversity, and life forms of epiphytic bryophytes on host trunks above the ground in these ecotones and adjacent communities. Species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were lower in the ecotone between OGF and ODMF (EOO) than the adjacent forest communities (i.e., OGF and ODMF), whereas these indices were higher in ecotones between OGF and SLF (EOSl) and between OGF and SPF (EOSp) than the adjacent secondary forests. The distribution of some species was restricted to specific ecotones. Porella nitens and Wijkia surcularis only appeared in EOSp, and Gammiella tonkinensis was restricted to EOO. Ecotones in montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests in Ailao Mountains exhibit an important influence on the patterns of epiphyte species composition and diversity.

    An assessment on the adaptability of Rhododendron plants under ex situ conservation
    Ping Zhuang, Yuanrun Zheng, Huimin Shao, Fei Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  665-675.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.11063
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    Assessments of adaptability are crucial for success in plant ex situ conservation. In this paper, we evaluated the adaptability of 172 Rhododendron species (including 17 subspecies or variations) by examining growth indices, tolerance to environmental stress and reproductive ability. These species, belonging to 33 subsections, 7 sections, and 5 subgenera, were ex situ cultivated at Longchi Base (1,800 m elevation) in Dujiangyan of Sichuan Province. A total of 246 evaluations were assessed with 5-20 individuals for each evaluation. We found that the adaptability of Rhododendron plants under ex situ conservation was closely related to floristic elements, elevation similarity between ex situ sites and native habitats, evolutionary degree and key functional traits of Rhododendron. The adaptability of the Sino-Japanese floristic elements was higher than that of the Sino-Himalayan elements. The groups or species whose native habitats were similar to this region’s elevation more successfully adapted. Primitive groups or intermediate groups distributed in the east China adapted better than the advanced groups especially distributed in alpine zones of west China; Rhododendron groups or species with some key functional traits, such as big leaf, without hair or hair-less, scale-less, were more adaptable in moist and shady sites. Our results indicate that ex situ conservation for Rhododendron plants can be explained by theories of adaptation, but with limitations.

    Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum
    Xia Wang, Jing Wang, Jinghu Jiang, Ming Kang
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  676-684.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.09083
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    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most serious threats to plant diversity. In general, fragmentation negatively impacts the genetic variability of plant populations due to increased random genetic drift, inbreeding, and reductions in gene flow. To investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and the mating system of Tsoongiodendron odorum, in this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and the mating system in hierarchical levels at the population, stands, and the individual scales in a fragmented T. odorum population. We sampled and mapped 61 adult individuals from the population. Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped a total of 780 seeds from 15 maternal trees for the mating system analysis. The results revealed moderate levels of genetic diversity in both adults (HE = 0.522) and seeds (HE = 0.499) with no significant differences between the two ontogenic stages. In addition, we did not observe a significant increase in the seeds inbreeding coefficient. Results from the multilocus mating system analysis indicated that T. odorum was an outbreeding species with a multilocus outcrossing rate (tm) of 1.000. A small number of biparental inbreeding and correlated mating events were detected in this fragmented population. We found a small number of effective pollen donors (Nep is between 3.7 and 5.4), which seems to be a common character of insect-pollinated canopy trees. Minor differences in outcrossing rates were detected among stands, and more pollen donors were found in smaller stands. However, outcrossing rate was significantly different among individuals, and a few selfing events were detected in some seed trees. These results may provide fundamental information required to establish long term conservation strategies for this endangered tree which is endemic to China.

    Spatial-temporal distribution of a Noctiluca scintillans population and its adaption to environmental conditions in northern South China Sea
    Yu Wang, Youyin Ye, Mao Lin*, Xingqun Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  685-692.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.08065
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    Based on the data of a Noctiluca scintillans population in northern South China Sea (107°00′- 119°00′E, 16°00′-24°00′N) obtained in project “Integrated Investigation and Assessment of China Seas” (coded as 908 project) in 2006 and 2008, we described the spatial distribution in wide geographical areas and seasonal variations of a Noctiluca scintillans population using GIS spatial analysis modeling and mapping techniques. The adaption of Noctiluca scintillans to temperature, salinity and nutrients were also discussed. The results showed that abundance of Noctiluca scintillans varied from 0.001×10 4cells/m3 to 64.5×104cells/m3, with an average of (0.56±3.29)×104cells/m3(n = 1,424). Average abundance varied by season, spring > autumn > winter > summer, with highest and lowest abundances of (1.28±4.24)×104cells/m3 (n = 356) and (0.19±0.95)×104cells/m3(n = 356), respectively. The spatial distribution of Noctiluca scintillans generally decreased from alongshore to offshore areas, in a pattern of discontinuous patches. Abundance assemblage zones laid along the shores of eastern Leizhou peninsula, where it was also the peak abundance region in winter. The zones of low annunal abundance were primarily in the northern South China Sea. Dapeng Bay in eastern Guangdong Province and Pearl River Estuary were not abundance assemblage zones during summer and winter months. We found the shore of southeastern Hainan Island became high abundance zones during summer months. Compared with data of national integrated investigations completed in 1958 and 1959, Noctiluca scintillans abundance increased abruptly with an evident change of abundance assemblage zones. The seasonal variation was obvious. Average Noctiluca scintillans abundance was 27 times higher than recorded in 1959. Noctiluca scintillans populations in South China Sea required a much higher temperature than it did in East, Yellow and Bohai Seas in China. Salinity fluctuations were normally not a critical factor determining variation in Noctiluca scintillans abundance. High Noctiluca scintillans abundance was not resulted directly from high nutrient content. Water eutrophication was not the necessary condition to predict the Noctiluca scintillans bloom.

    Genetic diversity in Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi based on SSR markers
    Ni Xiang, Yannong Xiao, Canxing Duan, Xiaoming Wang, Zhendong Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  693-702.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10062
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    Pea root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp), is one of the most important diseases on pea (Pisum sativum). Assessing the genetic diversity of the pathogen isolates from different geographical regions is crucially important for understanding of the genetic background of this pathogen and intelligently deploying host resistance. We screened SSRs in complete genome sequence of Nectria haematococca MPVI, and 107 SSR loci were selected for designing markers, from which 24 polymorphic primer pairs were developed. The 24 primer pairs were used to assess genetic diversity of 96 Fsp isolates from different geographical regions. Among 24 SSR markers, a total of 132 alleles were detected among the 96 Fsp isolates, the number of alleles for each of the loci ranged from 3 to 15 with an average of 5.5. The genetic diversity was estimated to range from 0.4855 to 0.8264 with the average value of 0.738. Using these markers, 93 genotypes were detected. When the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.8, 96 Fsp isolates were clustered into 10 groups by phylogenetic analysis. There was no correlation between SSR profile and either geographic origin or pathogenicity. Analysis of AMOVA revealed that variation mainly presented within Fsp populations (86.14%), and genetic differentiation of Fsp was significantly affected by geographical conditions and ecological environment.

    Diversity of endophytic Pestalotiopsis associated with three plant families in Guangxi
    Man Li, Weiwang Chen, Jiguang Wei, Lisha Song, Songdian Huang, Jitong Luo, Xiuhu Pan
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  703-709.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.07066
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    To understand diversity and successional changes of endophytic Pestalotiopsis in plant communities, we completed surveys of endophytic Pestalotiopsis in plants belonging to the Fagaceae (10 species), Lauraceae (7 species), and Palmae (5 species) in the Botanical Garden of Guangxi Academy of Foresty Sciences. We identified 30 endophytic Pestalotiopsis species, of which 17, 19, and 17 endophytic Pestalotiopsis species were obtained from Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Palmae, respectively, with Pestalotiopsis microspora as the dominant species. We collected a total of 8, 12 and 12 endophytic Pestalotiopsis species from Cyclobalanopsis fleuryi (Fagaceae), Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae), and Arenga engleri (Palmae), respectively. We found the highest colonization frequency (6.67%) of Pestalotiopsis in Cinnamomum camphora. We also found that colonization frequencies of endophytic Pestalotiopsis were higher on twig tissues compared with leaf tissues for most plant species except Phoenix roebelenii. The total number of Pestalotiopsis species varied by season, with 18, 16, 12, and 10 endophytic Pestalotiopsis species collected in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Colonization frequencies of endophytic Pestalotiopsis also varied by season with frequencies of 3.44%, 1.53%, 1.10% and 1.75% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. This research showed that Pestalotiopsis had a preference for colonization in some plants and certain tissues, and its colonization frequencies fluctuated in different seasons.

    Effect of zinc on DNA methylation diversity at different developmental stages of filial generation in Drosophila
    Xinxin Guo, Xue Mao, Min Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  710-715.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06090
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    To examine the features of DNA methylation diversity, we used a zinc treated Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism in this experiment. Our results showed significant differences in DNA methylation polymorphisms among embryos, third instar larvae, pupae, and female and male individuals. After zinc treatment (at a concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) to the parental generation, the percentage of DNA methylation polymorphic bands of offspring (5-8 h embryo) in the experimental groups F1-1, F1-2, F1-3 were significantly higher than the control group. The experimental group F1-2 (zinc concentration 2.5%) in 5-8 h embryo was affected most by zinc treatment of the parental generation, and DNA methylation polymorphic band ratios in 12-15 h embryo, 18-21 h embryo and female D. melanogaster were significantly higher than the control groups. Our results indicate that the embryo stage contains the highest DNA methylation diversity, and appropriate concentration of zinc material can increase DNA methylation diversity of D. melanogaster offspring.

    Differentiating nest sites characteristics of four sympatric cavity-nesting birds
    Chunfa Zhou, Daqing Zhou, Xiangkun Kong, Wenhong Deng
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  716-724.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.09068
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    Diverse group of cavity-nesting birds inhabit secondary forests of northeastern China, accounting for about one-third of breeding avian species. We examined differences in nest-site characteristics among four cavity-nesting birds, including two cavity excavators (i.e., great spotted woodpecker [Dendrocopos major] and grey-headed woodpecker [Picus canus]) and two secondary cavity-nesters (i.e., yellow-rumped flycatcher [Ficedula zanthopygia] and Eurasian nuthatch [Sitta europaea]) in Dagang Forestry Farm, Jilin Province, China. We detected total 160 active hole nests in the breeding season of 2008, including 58 nests of cavity excavators and 102 of secondary cavity-nesters. Secondary cavity-nesters tend to prefer Salix pierotii for nestingtrees, but the excavators not. Picus canus used south-facing cavities, which may have been due to thermal advantages. Nest tree and nest-site quadrat characteristics were different between the two excavator species. Specifically, there were significant differences in the entrance diameter and cavity inner diameter between the nest sites of Dendrocopos major and Picus canus, and the entrance length and canopy height of nest tree between Ficedula zanthopygia and Sitta europaea. The characteristics at the scale of nest tree were important for distinguishing nest sites for cavity excavators as well as secondary cavity-nesters. Discriminant analyses illustrated that Ficedula zanthopygia and Sitta europaea used cavities excavated by Dendrocopos major and Picus canus, respectively. Differences in size of nesting holes excavated by different woodpeckers could affect the usage of nest sites by secondary cavity-nesters, which may have an impact on avian community structure in secondary forests.

    Community structures of soil fauna in reclaimed copper mine tailings and suburb forest land
    Yongheng Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Fei Shen, Lin Lu
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  725-734.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10103
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    Soil fauna were very important for the ecological reconstruction of mine tailings. We investigated community characteristics of soil fauna at two sites, including reclamated copper-mine-tailings (RCMT) and suburb forest land of reclamated copper-mine-tailings (SFL) in Tongling City to test and illustrate the value of soil fauna for mitigating the impacts of heavy metal pollution. In the spring of 2011, we established four transects (150 m) at the two sites and collected soil samples of macro-, meso- and micro- soil fauna from four depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-15 cm, 15-20 cm) at 13 30 cm× 30 cm sampling quadrats. Our results showed that at RCMT, the Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups; the Formicidae, Coleoptera larvae, Oligochaeta, Diptera larvae and Diplura were frequent groups; and the additional 16 groups were less commonly encountered. While at SFL the Collembola and Acarina were dominant groups and the Nematoda and Oligochaeta were frequent groups. Overall abundance of soil fauna at RCMT were significantly less than that of SFL (F=20.65, P<0.01), and number of faunal groups were lower at RCMT (F=5.88, P<0.05). We did not find a significant difference between the density of macro-soil fauna at RCMT and SFL, but found that the density of meso- and micro- soil fauna at RCMT was significantly lower than that of SFL (F=29.99, P<0.01). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) at RCMT was higher than that of SFL (F=24.06, P<0.01), but DG diversity index was lower at RCMT compared to SFL (F=4.75, P<0.05). There was evident surface aggregation of soil fauna at RCMT, especially in the differences between the first layer and the other layers of the soil profile (Find.=17.80, Fgro.=33.33, P<0.01). Redundancy analysis indicated that soil macro-, dry-type, wet-type meso- and micro-fauna at different habitats were differentially affected by various environmental factors. At reclaimed land with higher copper concentrations, we found a higher greater number of Formicidae and Coleoptera and lower numbers of Collembola and Acarina adults. Our study suggests that the key of soil fauna recovery at reclaimed lands is to reduce the content of Cu and improve the microhabitat conditions.

    Local households’ perceptions of green agriculture
    Changhai Wang, Lijuan Cui, Xufeng Mao
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  735-744.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10094
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    To test changes in livelihood and perception of local residents after the implementation of green agriculture, 919 questionnaires were distributed to households in three Green Rice Project (GRP) pilot villages in the Crested Ibis National Nature Reserve (CINNR) 2004 and 2011. Our results showed that local households’ benefits were improved and most perceptions of cost and protection awareness were not significantly influenced by economic level (P > 0.05). Although the GRP increased all costs of rice farming, the public were willing to protect the Crested Ibis habitat. However, most of their perceptions of benefits and economic compensation were significantly influenced by economic levels (P <0.05). Despite those advantages, the GRP also has problems, such as unguaranteed funding sources, discontinuous techniques and financial support for follow-up industries. This study indicates that households will care more about their livelihood if their basic requirements are in doubt. Lastly, households participating in GRP tended to be more interested in the economic benefits from GRP, compared to households that were not enrolled in the GRP.

    Progress and prospect of climate change and marine biodiversity
    Jianguo Du, William W.L. Cheung, Bin Chen, Qiulin Zhou, Shengyun Yang, Guanqiong Ye
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  745-754.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10051
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    The relationship between biodiversity and climate change is a primary focal point of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Marine biodiversity is an important part of global biodiversity, therefore, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the relationship of climate change and marine organism. We reviewed the research about the relationship of climate changes and marine target species like Clupea pallasi, marine population structure such as zooplankton in East China Sea, marine ecosystems like coral reef and mangrove, and forecasting models such as dynamics bioclimate envelope models. We also identified the current status of climate change in China. Based on our analysis, we developed a set of research strategies including attaching importance to target species, enhancing marine animal population, identifying sensitive marine ecosystems, continuing long term studies, developing simulations on marine biodiversity under different climate change scenarios, and using ocean geographyic information system (GIS).

    Catalogue of global gymnosperms: problems and perspectives
    Yong Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  755-760.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06005
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    The catalogue of global species is a primary focus of biodiversity science. A complete species checklist of gymnosperms is possible through repeated and mutual verification by comparing global checklists with regional and local checklists. To evaluate potential inconsistencies in the current catalogue of global gymnosperms (e.g., spelling, authorship, and original literature of scientific names), I compared species records from three gymnosperm species lists, including the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (FRPS), Flora of China (FOC), and The Plant List (TPL). Errors included corresponding page number, publication year of the original naming literature, different opinions on species definitions (e.g. lumper vs. splitter) among authors, and mismatching species entities and their corresponding scientific names. To address these shortfalls, I propose measures like database development, comparison of different Floras and Checklists, and comparison of different species datasets. These actions would facilitate detection of missing names and/or literature as well as inconsistent records. The generally accepted taxonomic treatments will be adopted and the catalogue of problematic taxa will be corrected in a new taxonomic revision. This case study provides potential solutions to address problems that exist when attempting to catalogue global species diversity.

    A preliminary assessment of extinction risk from six species in the genus Pternopetalum based on herbarium specimen data
    Lisong Wang*, Lina Zhao, Haining Qin
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  761-768.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.08059
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    Based on parameters established by the IUCN red list, including extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, numbers of subpopulations and location, we investigated the extinction risk of six species from the genus Pternopetalum. Our results indicated that the six species are threatened; P. leptophyllum is critical endangered, P. rosthornii is endangered, and P. tanakae, P. vulgare, P. molle and P. delavayi are vulnerable. For IUCN red list assessment, herbarium specimens are most important, sometimes an only data source, in getting quantitative parameters. It is practically an irreplaceable data source when assessment activity covering large scale area and huge species number. However, herbarium specimen bear with innate bias in estimating quantitative parameters, which resulted effect for assessment need further study.

    An evaluation of the endangerment status of Sinochasea trigyna (Poac- eae) endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Weiwei Li, Hui Zhang, Lina Zhao, Ying Bao, Wenli Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  769-773.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.05016
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    Sinochasea trigyna Keng (Family Poaceae) is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and is listed as a second class national protected wild plant. The data about this monotypic genus is very scanty since its material difficult to acquire. According to the criterion of IUCN, the endangered level of S. trigyna is evaluated as VU B2ab(iii) based on the data from field investigations, herbarium records and the published literature. In this paper, we also reported the chromosome number (i.e. 2n = 22) and the type microchromosome of S. trigyna, which are both novel findings.

    Problems facing wetland nature reserves in China in the new era and recommendations for overcoming them
    Xinyi Huang, Jiakuan Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  774-778.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.05067
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    Over the last 20 years, the amount and area of nature reserves in China have been increasing rapidly under the concept of “rescue protection”. At present, it is urgent that the development of reserves moves into a new era in which effectiveness of protection is focused, and the success of the transformation depends on scientific decision-making and proper management approaches. To achieve scientific decision-making and management, existing problems facing nature reserves need to be ascertained first. Inspired by the article “Protection efficacy of national wetland reserves in China” (Chinese Science Bulletin, 57, 1-24), and based on reviewing available literature and sufficient field surveys, we point out the main four topics facing the development of wetland nature reserves in China. These topics include, dynamic of protected wildlife or ecosystems of every nature reserve and pertinence of management; necessary geographic space for life cycle completion, population maintenance of specific protected species, and the construction of reserve networks; impact of hydrological features changing on wetland ecosystems and corresponding coping strategies; and the interrelationships between wetland conservation and social-economic development and coordinated development patterns. According to the analysis of these problems, we put forth the following recommendations for wetland reserves: (1) the next round of scientific investigation should focus on the dynamic of protected objects, and investigate and formulate targeted management strategies; (2) collaborative management networks at watershed scale should be established in the perspective of spatial distribution of biodiversity and hydrological management; (3) a system of management assessment and tracking of wetland reserves should be constantly improved; (4) fundamental research of wetland reserves and the cooperation between reserves and research institutes should be enhanced; (5) a comprehensive law should be promulgated and legal system should be improved for wetland conservation. Lastly, we suggest that efforts be made in the research field of nature reserves, and thus provide enriched theoretical foundation for scientific decision-making and management of wetland reserves.

    Negotiation progress of the Nagoya Protocol on the access of genetic resources and benefit-sharing and countermeasures
    Jing Xu, Junsheng Li, Dayuan Xue
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  779-783.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.05070
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    The establishment of compliance mechanisms at the international level becomes the focus of stakeholders after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. The user and provider countries raise the elements and options on compliance mechanisms of the Nagoya Protocol according to the countries’ positions. Current negotiation processes indicate the differences on key issues of objectives, nature, compliance body settings, and the measures to promote compliance and address cases of non-compliance. This article analyzes options for core elements of compliance mechanisms raised by the user and provider countries, including whether mechanisms will be binding, common but differentiated principle will be stressed, a standing compliance committee with a strong monitor and review function will be established, and punitive measures for non-compliance will be established. Negotiation prospects point out that the mandatory nature of the compliance mechanism will be the core issue of the next round of negotiations. However, the settlement of disputes is ultimately dependent on the domestic legislation of parties. Finally, we provide three proposed countermeasures as follows: (1) elaborating special laws of genetic resources and improving relevant legal systems; (2) clarifying the supervising role in the scope of genetic resources and block the loss of genetic resource channels; and (3) regulating the utilization activities of other countries’ genetic resources.

    Artificial batch reproductive success of Isoetes sinensis, a critically endangered species
    Baodong Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2012, 20 (6):  784-784. 
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