In order to explore abuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal resources and reveal the relationship between soil factors and AM fungal diversity, we collected soil samples from the rhizosphere of main plants in saline alkaline soils of Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. A total of 28 AM fungal species were identified. Of these, 20 species belonged to the genus Glomus, 2 to Diversispora, 2 to Archaeospora, and 4 to Acaulospora. The frequencies of G. intraradices and Ar. leptotichum were the highest. Correlation analysis revealed that AM fungal species richness was significantly correlated with the contents of soil organic matter and available N, while Shannon-Wiener diversity index was significantly related with soil organic matter content. Path analysis revealed that organic matter had an significantly direct negative influence on Shannon-Wiener diversity index; Cl-, CO32-, K+, Mg2+, organic matter, available P and available K directly impacted Shannon-Wiener diversity index, while HCO3-, Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, soluble salt, pH value and available N indirectly affected Shannon-Wiener diversity index; Cl-, CO32-, HCO3-, Na+, Ca2+, organic matter, available P and available K directly impacted AM fungal species richness, while SO42-, K+, soluble salt, Mg2+, pH value and available N indirectly affected AM fungal species richness. Redundancy analysis revealed that the relative abundance of 14 AM fungal species was significantly correlated with soil factors. Our results indicate that there are plenty of AM fungal species in the saline alkaline soils of the three regions, and AM fungal diversity is related with nutrient status and contents of soluble saline and ions in soils.