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Table of Content
    Volume 28 Issue 10
    20 October 2020
    As one of the Class-II National Key Protected Species, white-naped crane (Grus vipio) is listed as a vulnerable species by the IUCN. Inner Mongolia’s Xilingol League is the crucial breeding site and migration stopover site for white-naped crane western population. In the region of Luan River upper reaches, the habitat in Duolun County and Zhenglan Banner is particularly vital to white-naped crane (see pages 1213–1221 of this issue). This cover picture which taken in Inner Mongolia’s Xilingol League demonstrates a detail in the interspecific relationship between white-naped crane and its’ neighbour black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) in the early summer. The black-winged stilt is close to the white-naped crane to draw the crane’s attention so as to protect its chicks or hatching eggs from being found and eaten by the crane. (Photographed by Yun Yan)
    Original Papers
    Seed traits and recruitment limitation of northern marginal Cercidiphyllum japonicum populations in China
    Jing Li, Tianyang Zhou, Xueli Lu, Xintao Li, Bin Sun, Hongjie Meng
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1161-1173.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020095
    Abstract ( 1280 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF (1513KB) ( 587 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Cercidiphyllum japonicum is a Tertiary relict tree, and recruitment limitation leads to the population declining dramatically. However, the causes of recruitment limitation are currently unclear. This study tests whether early life history traits (seed germination) may limit seedling recruitment of northern C. japonicum populations in China. In this study, we collected C. japonicum seeds in the Qinling-Taihang Mountains and measured their seed morphological traits, seed nutrient content, seed mass, seed vitality, and seed germination. ANOVA and correlation analysis results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in seed length, germination percentage, mean germination time (MGT), and seed nitrogen and phosphorus contents among C. japonicum populations. (2) In the Tianshui population, the percentage of germinating seeds was the highest (21.77%), and MGT was the longest (11.12 d), while the opposite results were found in Luanchuan population (germination percentage = 1.38%, and MGT = 3.47 d). (3) The percentage of germination of the Jiyuan population was higher at 25℃ than at other temperatures (10℃, 15℃ and 20℃), whereas the germination percentages of Tianshui, Ningshan, Luanchuan and Qinshui populations had no significant differences at these different temperatures. Additionally, there were no significant differences in days of the first germination record (T0) in Luanchuan population at four temperature levels, while T0 decreased with increasing germination temperature in the other provenances. (4) Germination percentage was significantly correlated with seed vitality, which was positively related with seed mass, and seed nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Seed intrinsic attributes (seed mass, seed nitrogen and phosphorus contents) influenced seed vitality which directly influenced germination percentage. Different provences had difference germination responses to temperature, notably in T0 and MGT. In this study, we found evidence of seed germination limiting seedling recruitment of northern Chinese C. japonicum populations. The main causes were as follow: (1) Seed may germinate in October after maturation in September, but the seedlings have short growing period and could not survive under low temperature during winter. (2) Seeds have low germination percentage. (3) Seed vitality decrease abruptly in coming spring.

    The species composition and distributional characteristics of invasive alien plants along the new Sichuan-Tibet Railway (Ya’an to Changdu section)
    Hengning Deng, Wenbin Ju, Yundong Gao, Junyi Zhang, Shiqi Li, Xinfen Gao, Bo Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1174-1181.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020018
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    Hengduan Mountains is a hotspot of global biodiversity and serves as an important part of the national ecological barrier. The new Sichuan-Tibet Railway (Ya’an to Changdu section) crosses the core area of the Hengduan Mountains. The transportation network formed by the railway connects the biodiversity hotspots along the route to the outside world, leading to an increased risk for biological invasions. In order to obtain information on the composition and distributional characteristics of the invasive alien plants in this region and provide references for upcoming railway construction, ecological protection, and ecological restoration, we selected 43 representative sites (1 km × 0.02 km) in the area to conduct surveys. A total of 58 invasive alien species were identified, belonging to 18 families and 42 genera. The three most frequently occurring species were Galinsoga parviflora, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Bidens pilosa. Ten species were considered to be the malignant invasive species, 16 serious invasions, 8 local invasions, and 15 general invasions. The damage of the remaining 9 species needs further observation. The Americas are the primary geographical origin of invasive alien plant species in this region. A comparative study based on altitude and major rivers found that with increasing altitude and geographic extension, the number of invasive alien plants decreased significantly, and the distributional pattern was the result of the combined effects of environmental factors and human activities. Based on the status and habitat characteristics of the invasions along the railway, this study analyzed the risk of alien plant invasion caused by railway construction, and we make corresponding suggestions to prevent further invasion.

    The influence of harmful plant Wedelia biflora expansion on terrestrial mollusks in Xisha Islands
    Biyue Yan, Fuchun Tong, Luhui Kuang, Zhijian Mou, Wenjia Wu, Hongyue Cai, Jun Wang, Shuguang Jian, Hai Ren, Zhanfeng Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1182-1191.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020035
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    It is well-documented that the expansion of Wedelia biflora profoundly impacts the structure and functions of the native plant community in the Xisha Islands, but the effects of this expansion on terrestrial mollusks remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the population density and shell features (e.g. height, width and mass) of the major groups of terrestrial mollusks: Achatina fulica, Subulinidae, Camaenidae and Ariphantidae. Mollusk conditions were assessed under different degrees of W. biflora expansion on Yongxing Island. Results showed: (1) As the coverage of W. biflora increased, the population density of A. fulica and Subulinidae also increased, decreased for Camaenidae, and initially increased and then decreased for Ariphantidae. (2) Population density of A. fulica small-sized individuals increased at a disproportionately higher rate with W. biflora expansion, while the density of other body size remained unaltered. (3) W. biflora expansion inhibited certain shell features of A. fulica, which adopted an r strategy to cope with W. biflora expansion. In summary, the expansion of W. biflora on Yingxing Island altered the body sizes, population density and community structure of terrestrial mollusks. To cope with this expansion, different mollusks adopted different response strategies, a selective process which should be considered when managing the spread of invasive species.

    The winter diet of sambar (Rusa unicolor) in the Qionglai Mountains
    Quanjian Zhang, Biao Yang, Qiang Fu, Lei Wang, Xu Gong, Yuanbin Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1192-1201.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020063
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    Rusa unicolor, a rare and endangered species, is listed as Class II National Key Protected Species. The study of its feeding habits in the food shortage season is very important for its protection. In this study, 18 valid fecal samples of R. unicolor in Anzihe protected area of the Qionglai Mountains in Sichuan were analyzed for its feeding plants by HTS (high-throughput sequencing). The results showed that: (1) The feeding plants of R. unicolor belonged to 50 families, 94 genera. (2) The preferred plant types of R. unicolor consisted of Rubus, Cornus, Helwingia, Strobilanthes, Viburnum, Sabia, Stachyurus, Smilax, Acer and Hydrangea. Among these, the Rubus (Rosaceae) is the predominant food source for R. unicolor. (3) Rusa unicolor feeds on diverse plants and has a wide food niche in winter. (4) Rusa unicolor has strong environmental adaptability and resource utilization ability, which feeds on more plant types and adjusts its niche appropriately in winter to adapt to the environmental changes. The results of this study will be helpful for the development of evidence-based management strategies for R. unicolor and its sympatric artiodactyls.

    Characteristics and historical changes of the fish assemblage in the Danjiangkou Reservoir
    Jingpei Bai, Geng Huang, Changjun Jiang, Weicheng Zhang, Qidong Wang, Lunguang Yao
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1202-1212.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020009
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    To quantify the fish assemblage and its historical change, we conducted surveys in the Danjiangkou Reservoir in 2018 and 2019 based on multi-mesh gillnet samplings and catch by fisheries. A total of 33 fish species were collected, belonging to 5 orders, 11 families, and 29 genera, among which Cyprinidae were dominant, accounting for 63.6% of the total species captured. Spatial variation of diversity indices and catch per unit effort (CPUE, g·day -1·m -2) based on gillnet samplings were calculated among sampling sites. Currently, the Danjiangkou Reservoir is dominated by sedentary, lentic, omnivorous and carnivorous fishes. Compared with historical data from the 1950s and 1980s, the number of total fish species in the reservoir increased and then subsequently decreased. Whereas the proportion of omnivorous species, lotic species, and migratory species showed a continuous decline. The similarity indices of species composition between the present and the 1950s and 1980s were 0.35 and 0.29, respectively (both medium dissimilarity). These results indicate that the current fish assemblage in the Danjiangkou Reservoir has undergone significant changes in the last half-century trending toward smaller species and simpler assemblages, which may be attributed to human activities such as dam construction, fish stocking, overfishing, and the introduction of non-native fish species.

    Luan River upper reaches: The important stopover site of the white-naped crane (Grus vipio) western population
    Xuemin Lang, Gankhuyag Purev-Ochir, Oyunchimeg Terbish, Dashdorj Khurelbaatar, Baasansuren Erdenechimeg, Amarkhuu Gungaa, Chunrong Mi, Yumin Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1213-1221.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020100
    Abstract ( 919 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (3190KB) ( 637 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The white-naped crane (Grus vipio) is listed as a vulnerable species by the IUCN. The western population of white-naped cranes continues to decline. In 2017 and 2018, we fitted 50 individuals from the western population with GPS-GSM satellite transmitters in eastern Mongolia. From July 2017 to May 2019, we obtained 48 migration routes in spring and autumn, respectively. We found that during migrations, 91.67% (spring) and 72.91% (autumn) of tracked individuals chose the Luan River upper reaches (Guyuan-Zhenglanqi-Duolun) as their stopover site, where they stayed for 36.16 ± 15.00 days (75%) in the spring, and 20.26 ± 11.08 days (67%) in the autumn. Habitat selection model showed that water (specifically distance to lake) was the main environmental variable which affects the migration route choice for white-naped cranes. The cranes preferred the stopover site that was close to lake (< 210 km) and had gentle slopes (< 1°) at an altitude between 1,200-1,500 m. The Luan River upper reaches was close to river (< 70 km) and the altitude at 1,200-1,500 m is consistent with preffered migration routes. Additionally, there are large areas of grassland and farmland for foraging and roosting. We found that there were protected areas in the Luan River upper reaches, while no more than 1.63% of the migration stopover points were within these protected areas. From our results, we argue that Luan River upper reaches was the most important stopover site for the western population of white-naped crane. Unfortunately, the cranes in this area are not well protected based on their stopover points. Therefore, we highly recommend that the Luan River upper reaches should be included as part of a conservation management system. This will be beneficial for this threatened species.

    Effects of fig wasp temperature tolerance on interspecific coexistence
    Huanhuan Chen, Zhumei Li, Lizhou Tang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1222-1228.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019383
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    There are about 800 species of fig trees in the world, which are mainly distributed in tropics, some species extend to subtropics. Fig trees rely on agaonid fig wasps to pollinate and are also exploited by some non-pollinating fig wasps. Fig wasps depend heavily on temperature who can only maintain normal physiological functions within a certain temperature range that is more sensitive than fig trees. Temperature directly affects the fig wasp’s abundance and interspecific relationships. However, lack of research leaves a knowledge gap in our understanding of how fig wasp temperature tolerance affects the coexistence of wasps in fig. We conducted the experiment of temperature tolerance on six species of fig wasps from monecious Ficus altissima and F. racemosa, and dioecious F. semicordata in Xishuangbanna. Our results show that high temperature tolerance of all pollinating fig wasps was low, while the tolerance of Ceratosolen gravelyi on F. semicordata to low temperature was enhanced. When looking at fig wasp community composition on F. racemosa, the pollinating fig wasp are dominant species, but the population was decreased significantly in low temperature seasons in Xishuangbanna. While non-pollinating fig wasps showed the opposite pattern, which maintained high abundances during the cool-foggy season with low temperature due to greater temperature tolerances. On F. semicordata, non-pollinating fig wasps Sycoscapter trifemmensis had stronger temperature tolerance than Philotrypesis dunia so that the former had competitive advantage and large population. Differences in temperature tolerance of fig wasps plays an important role in species distribution, maintaining interspecific relationships and coexistence. Our results provide scientific evidence for understanding fig wasp coexistence.

    Effect of climate change and economic development on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
    Xiang Hou, Tuo Feng, Ning Han, Jing Wang, Xiaoning Chen, Xiaolei An, Lei Xu, Qiyong Liu, Gang Chang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1229-1237.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020264
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    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a natural focus disease transmitted via contact with infected rodents and is a global public health threat. Using statistical models and wavelet analysis, we analyzed the effects that rodent density, climate and economic variations on HFRS cases in the Huyi District of Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province from 1984-2016. We found that the outbreak history could be divided into two periods, each of which with a different major reservoir. We found that Rattus norvegicus may have replaced Apodemus sagrarius as the major reservoir of HFRS around 2002, using wavelet analysis. Generalized additive models show that incidence of HFRS was positively associated with Apodemus sagrarius densities from 1984 to 2001 (F2.06,9.02 = 102.415, P < 0.01) and with Rattus norvegicus densities from 2002 and 2016 (F1.67,9.02 = 73.929, P < 0.01). We also found that the shift in major reservoir for HFRS was associated with local climate variation (quantified by annual average temperature), and economic activity (quantified by gross domestic product, GDP). We found negative correlations between temperature and incidence of HFRS (F2.93,9.02 = 12.164, P < 0.01) and between GDP and incidence of HFRS (F1.70,9.02 = 2.917, P < 0.05). We used a structural equation model to demonstrate this shift in reservoir through direct and indirect pathways, and found that temperature had a direct negative effect on HFRS incidence and an indirect positive effect via Rattus norvegicus. GDP has a direct negative effect on HFRS incidence. This study has demonstrated how changes in climate and economic factors have affected outbreak of HFRS. Knowledge of these effects can contribute in helping develop better strategies for controlling the spread of HFRS.

    Newly recorded species of seed plants from Xizang, China
    Cheng Liu, Jidong Ya, Yongjie Guo, Jie Cai, Ting Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1238-1245.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020161
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    Four species, Tetrataenium wallichii, Quercus baloot, Clinopodium nepalense and Garnotia emodi are reported as newly recorded species in China. Twenty-four species, Pleurospermum decurrens, Hoya linearis, Gynura nepalensis, Solidago decurrens, Euonymus vaganoides, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Zehneria japonica, Elaeagnus sarmentosa, Crotalaria tetragona, Flemingia macrophylla, Coleus forskohlii, Litsea taronensis, Bulbophyllum purpureofuscum, Bulbophyllum repens, Cephalantheropsis obcordata, Dendrobium forrestii, Diglyphosa latifolia, Gastrochilus yunnanensis, Liparis assamica, Otochilus porrectus, Petrosavia sakuraii, Gynochthodes lacunosa, Alectra avensis and Alniphyllum fortunei are reported as newly recorded species in Xizang. Notably, the family Petrosaviaceae as well as the genera Solidago, Zehneria, Flemingia, Coleus, Diglyphosa, Petrosavia, Gynochthodes, Alectra and Alniphyllum have not been previously recorded in Xizang and are reported herein. The voucher specimens for each reported species were collected and deposited in the Herbarium of Kunming Institute of Botany (KUN), Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    Functional orientation and spatial attribute analysis of the National Park Planning System of China
    Xiaoping Tang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1246-1254.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020040
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    China will construct a unified land and space planning system, plan the overall pattern of land and space development and protection, and increase the amount of guidance and restraint on various spatial plans. These changes will have a significant impact on the national park protection system. Here, we analyze the the national park planning system from a land and space planning perspective. The national park planning system includes attributes for space planning and development planning. Therefore, there should be a priority placed on the land space and planning systems. In addition, there should be a focus on the analysis of the function of the overall national park master plan for the space planning system. As a spatial plan, it is necessary to implement the control indicators and management requirements of a higher-level spatial plan for national parks. As a construction plan, it is important to undertake the higher-level or national economic development planning requirements for the target tasks in national parks. Finally, as a management plan, there must be clear requirments for smoothly running the national parks. National parks should seek innovation in special planning such as zone planning, regulatory detailed planning, and exploring the implementation mode for national park use control.

    The systemic solution to historical problems in China’s natural protected areas
    Baorong Huang, Conglin Zhang, Ran Deng
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1255-1265.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020318
    Abstract ( 1954 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (1222KB) ( 896 )   Save
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    Recently, the Chinese central government identified key problems in their history that has resulted in poor care for naturally protected areas. Some examples of these problems include having densely populated areas, community livelihood facilities, mining activity, and construction projects occurring in these naturally protected areas. In an attempt at finding solutions to these problems, we first classify these problems into three major categories: (1) both of overprotection and protection gap is existing; (2) conflict between conservation efforts and improving the livelihood of residents living near or in protected areas; (3) a great deal of business activity in protected areas. This study then describes an in-depth analysis on the institutional reasons for each category of historical problems. Finally, in order to rationally resolve these problems and improve the quality of protected area construction and management this study proposes the following systematic solutions from four aspects: (1) strengthening the top-level design of planning and construction of China’s protected areas; (2) formulating and revising relevant laws and regulations for protected areas; (3) taking measures to resolve problems dealing with land tenure and mining rights in protected areas; (4) establishing institutional mechanisms to balance both conservation and development of protected areas.

    Educational use in global national parks: Review and implications
    Dongjun Chen, Linsheng Zhong
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1266-1275.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020011
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    Education is one of the most important functions of national parks, and its use in national parks is underscored by the parks’ characteristics of public welfare and national ownership. China’s national park system was established only recently. Consequently, the practice and theory of educational use in China’s national parks is poorly understood. We analyze the available literature using the core compilation of Web of Science to systematically review educational use in national parks globally and to establish further research directions that can be pursued in China. Research on educational use in national parks has developed rapidly since the 21st century. Most relevant literature was published in environmental science and earth science journals. Research on educational use mainly focus on educational resources assessment, purpose, management, effectiveness, and their influencing factors. National parks are rich in educational resources, and the evaluation of educational potential and suitability are necessary for their appropriate utilization, protection, and management. Education mainly seeks to protection support, buffer community conflicts, provide cultural services, and increase visitor safety. The use of diversified media for education, targeted educational materials, and favorable cooperation are important factors that maximize the effectiveness of education programs. The evaluation of educational effectiveness on the cognition/awareness, emotions/attitudes, and behaviors is mainly influenced by individual characteristics and educational management. International research on educational use of national parks develop interdisciplinary theories, qualitative and quantitative comprehensive applications of research methods, and rich research content across a wide range of fields. Our review suggests that China should strengthen research and evaluation of educational resources, construct a set of educational content systems, use a diversity of educational approaches and media, facilitate educational cooperation and management, evaluate educational effectiveness programs, and analyze additional factors influencing educational use.

    Biodiversity conservation of Kazakhstan and suggestions on cooperation between China and Kazakhstan
    Miao Wu, Yun Hao, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lixian Wang, Jingjing He, Guangzheng Duan
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1276-1285.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019378
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    Kazakhstan is located in the hinterlands of Eurasia and is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Cooperation between China and Kazakhstan that is focused on the conservation of biodiversity will help solve regional ecological and environmental problems and promote the smooth implementation of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative. China still lacks a basic understanding of Kazakhstan’s biodiversity and the conservation status of different organisms. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we used geographic environmental characteristics, biodiversity status, and different levels of conservation effectiveness to understand the degree of biodiversity present in Kazakhstan. We found that Kazakhstan is rich in biodiversity, but is also at serious risk of losing biodiversity. Kazakhstan's government emphasizes the importance in protecting biodiversity and is active in complying with international obligations. The government has been able to combine the social and economic needs of the nation in implementing a multi-level management system that has been achieved certain results.

    The latest developments of IPBES and China’s countermeasures
    Yuxue Pan, Boya Zhang, Yang Wu, Fengbin Dai, Yu Tian
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1286-1291.  doi:10.17520/biods.2019372
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    The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is the first intergovernmental policy mechanism for biodiversity conservation. To date, IPBES has greatly affected the development and implementation of global biodiversity and ecosystem protection policies and has significantly increasing global policymakers’ concern on biodiversity. IPBES held its 7th Plenary Session in April 2019 in Paris, France. The plenary summarized the achievements of the goals in its first work programme (2014-2019), and approved the second work programme (2019-2030), which will guide the crucial work and assessments of the next decade. This paper analyzed IPBES progress and main points of IPBES members based on objectives in the two work programmes, and proposed China’s countermeasures. Based on the IPBES assessments, biodiversity related issues are becoming more diversified and complex. IPBES is further mainstreaming and politicizing biodiversity conservation issues by launching a series of deliverables. As China is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, we recommend China recognize the important role of IPBES and enhance its initiative and voice in relevant negotiations by encouraging active participation in IPBES processes, strengthening cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration, and promoting international cooperation and exchanges.

    Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in microbial research: Impact, best practices, and China’s legislative options
    Xiaoyong Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2020, 28 (10):  1292-1299.  doi:10.17520/biods.2020056
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    Following the steps of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Nagoya Protocol (NP) continues to adopt a bilateral approach to regulate access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (ABS). The approach cannot be implemented wholly in accordance with the premise and model that the CBD has presupposed. The measures being taken to implement the NP have negatively impacted microbial research and development activities. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) has dedicated its work to promoting the effective implementation of the CBD and the NP in microbial research, and formulated relevant code of conduct and guidelines for this purpose. In 2016, the WFCC published the TRUST Guidelines that represent sector specific ABS best practices. The TRUST Guidelines provide a range of pragmatic recommendations for in situ and ex situ access to MGRs, depositing MGRs, and benefit-sharing. In order to implement the NP, China has initiated the ABS legislative process, and the current legislation process has entered into a critical phase. The TRUST Guidelines have significant benefits for China’s ABS legislation. The legislative body may draw on different types of regulated activities and corresponding recommendations put forward by the TRUST Guidelines. Based on actual circumstances in China, the legislative body should build a set of legal rules applicable to accessing microbial genetic resources and benefit-sharing. This set of legal rules will be comprised of two groups: legal rules applicable to plant, animal and microbial genetic resources and legal rules specifically applicable to microbial genetic resources. It should be noted that the latter may be incorporated into the detailed rules for the implementation of the ABS legislation

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