Biodiv Sci ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 22588.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022588

• Special Feature: On the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Convention on Biological Diversity and its protocols: Negotiation, challenges and recommendations on the “capacity-building and development”

Dini Zhang, Lei Wang, Xiaoqiang Lu, Changyong Wang*(), Yan Liu*()   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2022-10-18 Accepted:2023-04-14 Online:2023-04-20 Published:2023-04-16
  • Contact: *E-mail:;


Background & Aim: Capacity-building and development (CDD) is an integral part to implementing the protocols of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and an effective means to put the new Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) into action. CDD is crucial, in developing countries, for promoting the implementation of the CBD and achieve positive results. This paper aims to provide guidance for effective implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF and completion of its goals, and further explore policy priorities that could potentially address the issue.

Review Results: It is known that none of the “Aichi Targets” have been fully achieved at the global level. Furthermore, the international community realizes the need to alter past approaches that were largely focused towards setting targets than taking actions. Here, we systematically review the policy decisions adopted by the Conferences of the Parties (COPs) to the CBD and its protocols in regard to CDD. The findings show that due to the increasing concerns for the CDD under CBD, the COPs recommend a reorienting of priorities from the long-term focus on information exchange and technology transfer to the establishment and performance of a complete institution for the CDD. The latest negotiation results and debates on the CDD contained in the Kunming-Montreal GBF are also presented.

Challenges: The efforts to promote CDD under the CBD and its Protocols still face ongoing challenges, including insufficient co-finance, shortage of systematic needs assessment and inventory, limited knowledge and information sharing, lack of long-term and sustainable interventions, and inadequate synergy among biodiversity-related international conventions.

Recommendations: Strategic recommendations to enhance the CDD are provided, namely, at the international level, (1) strengthening financial support; (2) national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAP) to fully guarantee the implementation of capacity-building and development activities; (3) ensuring the projects and programs for the CDD are systematic, institution-oriented, sustainable; (4) improvement of the information clearing house; and (5) enhancing the synergy of biodiversity-related international conventions; and at the domestic level, (1) strengthening top-level design and employing the China National Commission for Biodiversity Conservation to coordinate the efforts related to biodiversity; (2) updating the NBSAP; (3) identifying capacity-building needs in the areas of biosecurity and genetic resources; (4) improving the publicity campaigns and the participation of various stakeholders; and (5) helping other developing countries to improve the CDD by means of the “Kunming Biodiversity Fund” and the “Belt and Road” to promote a responsible China.

Key words: capacity-building and development, Convention on Biological Diversity, protocol, international compliance, Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, strategic framework, action plan