生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (11): 1227-1233.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016031

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鱼类多样性监测的理论方法及中国内陆 水体鱼类多样性监测

刘焕章1,*(), 杨君兴2, 刘淑伟2, 高欣1, 陈宇顺1, 张春光3, 赵凯4, 李新辉5, 刘伟6   

  1. 1.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
    2.中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223
    3.中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    4.中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008
    5.中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所, 广州 510380
    6.中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 哈尔滨 150076
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-11 接受日期:2016-11-23 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-12-14
  • 通讯作者: 刘焕章
  • 基金资助:
    中国生物多样性监测与研究网络(Sino BON)和长江三峡生态与环境监测系统(JJ [2015]-042)

Theory and methods on fish diversity monitoring with an introduction to the inland water fish diversity observation in China

Huanzhang Liu1,*(), Junxing Yang2, Shuwei Liu2, Xin Gao1, Yushun Chen1, Chunguang Zhang3, Kai Zhao4, Xinhui Li5, Wei Liu6   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    3 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    4 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    5 Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences, Guangzhou 510380
    6 Heilongjiang Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences, Harbin 150076
  • Received:2016-11-11 Accepted:2016-11-23 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-12-14
  • Contact: Liu Huanzhang

摘要:

近年来, 生物多样性监测网络的建设得到广泛重视, 全球、地区或国家生物多样性观测网不断组建。生物多样性观测的理论框架得到发展, 提出了生物多样性核心监测指标(Essential Biodiversity Variables, EBV)。鱼类多样性监测的理论框架包含于生物多样性核心监测指标之内, 在遗传、物种、生态系统等多层次进行。基于鱼类监测提出的生物完整性指数(index of biotic integrity, IBI)强调不同物种的生态功能, 可以综合反映群落结构和功能的变化, 得到广泛应用。鱼类多样性的监测方法是传统网具和现代水声学等方法的结合。监测结果的分析可以进行简单的指数比较, 也可以进行长期的趋势分析, 寻找关键节点, 探讨宏观生态格局的变化。中国内陆水体鱼类多样性监测网隶属于中国生物多样性监测与研究网络, 拟选取长江、黄河、黑龙江、珠江、澜沧江、怒江、塔里木河及青海湖8大流域, 对25个重要区域和24个重点物种(类群)进行监测, 从重要区域鱼类群落结构、重点物种(类群)种群动态和个体生物学特征、遗传多样性、早期资源等不同层次, 全面监测我国内陆水体鱼类生物多样性状况。

关键词: 内陆水体鱼类, 监测网络, 物种多样性, 生物学特征

Abstract:

In recent years, the establishment of biodiversity observation networks (BON) has been of great concern. The global scale GEO-BON (Global Earth Observation—Biodiversity Observation Network), regional EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) and AP BON (Asia-Pacific BON), and local networks such as the J-BON (Japanese BON) and French BON have been successful. The introduction of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV) has laid a theoretical foundation for biodiversity observations. The fish biodiversity observation theory is embedded in the EBV, and includes work at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. Originally designed for fish monitoring, the index of biotic integrity (IBI) has become the most popular index, and emphasizes the identification of different ecological functional groups, which can reflect changes in community structure and function. Fish diversity survey methods include both traditional nets and modern instruments such as a hydroacoustic sonar system. Analysis of monitoring data can be completed as simple comparisons of various indices, modeling long term trends to identify change-points, and exploring ecological regime shifts. As a part of the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network (Sino BON)—Inland Water Fish is designed to conduct fish monitoring work in 8 major drainage basins in China including the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, the Heilongjiang River, the Zhujiang River, the Lancang River, the Nujiang (Salween) River, the Tarim River, and the Qinhaihu Lake. A total of 25 focused areas and 24 targeted species (groups) have been selected as sampling sites and crucial indicators, respectively, and monitoring variables including community structure, population structure and dynamics, biological traits, genetic diversity, and fish early resources.

Key words: inland water fish, Sino BON, species diversity, biological traits