生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (1): 78-85.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2003011

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

大尺度生物多样性评价

赵海军, 纪力强*   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-21 修回日期:2002-11-12 出版日期:2003-01-20 发布日期:2003-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 纪力强

Biodiversity assessment at broad scale

ZHAO Hai-Jun,JI Li-Qiang*   

  1. Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080
  • Received:2002-05-21 Revised:2002-11-12 Online:2003-01-20 Published:2003-01-20
  • Contact: JI Li-Qiang

摘要: 如何在减小采样付出和获取真实信息之间取得平衡,是大尺度生物多样性评价的一个主要问题。本文首先给出了大尺度评价的定义,然后回顾其历史并指出了其中存在的问题。接着从采样空间策略、代理物种、评价指标、快速评价技术、遥感技术5个方面对评价设计方法学作了总结,最后引入了多尺度生物多样性评价体系,作为解决问题的思路。该体系要求在一系列空间尺度上对生物多样性的特征值进行采样和计算,其核心是中间尺度的构建,可以采用自底向上和自顶向下两种思路构建中间尺度。对于多样性的保育来说,中间尺度至关重要,生物多样性的评价、管理规划和实践的整合需要在中间尺度上进行。大尺度生物多样性变化可以作为整合的背景,而小尺度是保育管理行动的合适尺度。

关键词: 中国, 海洋生物多样性, 现状, 展望

AbstractHow to make a balance between reducing sampling efforts and gaining accurate information is a central problem in broad-scale biodiversity assessment. This article tries to address this question by introducing multiscale methodology. We first provide a definition of broad-scale assessment, then highlight this problem after reviewing the history of global assessments. In the third part, we summarize the methodology of assessment design from five aspects: sampling strategy, surrogate species, rapid assessment technique, indicators and remote sensing techniques. Finally, a hierarchical multiscale method is described that provides a better balance. In a typical multiscale assessment, biodiversity is characterized at a series of spatial scales, thus it is different from the traditional sampling design. Correspondingly, multiscale planning can be simply divided into two categories: one comprises sampling designs with loosely-defined scales, and the other comprises those with strictly-defined scales. The former has the advantage of synthesizing information more easily among multiple scales. In our view, the essence of this method is construction of a middle-scale, which can be realized by “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. The ideal method for biodiversity conservation based on this multiscale methodology is to plan in the broad-scale context, to integrate at the middle scale and to act at the local, manageable scale.

Key words: China, marine biodiversity, current status, prospects