生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 407-413.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13210

• • 上一篇    

生物多样性适应气候变化的国家政策和措施: 国际经验及启示

刘影, 邹玥屿, 朱留财, 吴伟玲, 李培*()   

  1. 环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-26 接受日期:2014-01-22 出版日期:2014-05-20 发布日期:2014-06-04
  • 通讯作者: 李培
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部“国际合作与履约: 生物多样性公约”项目和“生物多样性保护专项”项目

Major policies and measures on biodiversity adaptation to climate change: international experience and enlightenment

Ying Liu, Yueyu Zou, Liucai Zhu, Weiling Wu, Pei Li()   

  1. Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, Ministry of Environment Protection, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2013-09-26 Accepted:2014-01-22 Online:2014-05-20 Published:2014-06-04

摘要:

气候变化已成为威胁生物多样性及生态系统服务功能的主要因素之一, 许多国家已经意识到必须提高本国生物多样性适应气候变化的能力。一些国家出台了国家战略, 采取增加连通性、改进现有保护区域的管理和恢复措施等基于生态系统的适应措施, 采用跨学科与跨部门协作手段加强生物多样性适应气候变化的监测和评估, 并且从制度和资金等方面加强政策措施的落实。作者对部分发达国家和发展中的生物多样性大国的生物多样性适应气候变化的相关政策和措施进行了梳理, 并结合我国现状提出以下建议: (1)把生物多样性适应气候变化作为国家整体适应战略中的优先措施之一; (2)将提高生物多样性和生态系统的恢复力作为适应气候变化的基础性原则; (3)整合并完善国家生物多样性监测网络, 参考国际通行标准制定信息和数据收集标准, 并且尽快对气候变化下我国生物多样性脆弱性开展全面且持续的评估。

关键词: 生物多样性, 生态系统, 脆弱性, 恢复力, 适应, 气候变化

Abstract:

Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyzed current policies and measures relating to biodiversity adaptation to climate change in some of the most developed countries and developing mega-biodiversity countries. Some governments recognize the great importance and urgency of action on biodiversity adaptation and have released national strategies. The most popular approach is an ecosystem-based adaptation approach, embodied by measures such as increasing landscape connectivity as well as improving management and restoration of existing protected areas to achieve higher resilience. Most governments consider climate change and its impacts on biodiversity an interdisciplinary topic, which needs continual, collaborative monitoring. Addressing the impacts of climate change also requires an assessment of the vulnerability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The establishment of high-level coordination mechanisms coupled with sufficient funding is required to fully implement adaptation policies and measures. Based on these foreign experiences and current progress in China, we hereby propose the following suggestions: (1) highlight the crucial importance of a biodiversity and a well-adapted ecosystem while enabling society to adapt to climate change; (2) improve capability of integrated management of protected areas to build biodiversity and ecosystem resilience; (3) integrate comprehensive monitoring network and conduct regular and continuing assessment of the vulnerability of biodiversity to climate change in China.

Key words: biodiversity, ecosystem, vulnerability, resilience, adaptation, climate change, policy and measures