生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 99-110.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12175

• • 上一篇    下一篇

特有植物多样性分布格局测度方法的新进展

黄继红1,2, 张金龙2,3, 杨永4, 马克平2,*()   

  1. 1 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091
    2 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    3 香港嘉道理农场暨植物园植物保育部, 香港
    4 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2012-09-03 接受日期:2012-12-18 出版日期:2013-01-20 发布日期:2013-02-04
  • 通讯作者: 马克平
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30590382);中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX2-YW-430);中国博士后科学基金(2011M500439)

Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity

Jihong Huang1,2, Jinlong Zhang2,3, Yong Yang4, Keping Ma2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environmental and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 Flora Conservation Department, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Lam Kam Road, Taipo, NT, Hong Kong
    4 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2012-09-03 Accepted:2012-12-18 Online:2013-01-20 Published:2013-02-04
  • Contact: Ma Keping

摘要:

特有植物是生物多样性保护的重要对象, 对其分布格局的研究可以为生物多样性优先保护区的确定提供重要参考。研究人员利用多种测度和分析方法, 在不同地理区域对特有现象的分布格局开展了大量研究。随着分子系统学方法的不断完善及一些空间统计分析方法的引入, 新的生物多样性测度方法应运而生。本文介绍了生物多样性测度方法的类型及其特点、应用现状与前景。这些测度方法的发展经历了从单一的时间或空间格局到时空格局统一的过程, 具体涉及物种丰富度、谱系多样性、进化特异性以及这3种测度方法整合空间分布加权的算法。其中, 谱系多样性指数(phylogenetic diversity)、谱系特有性指数(phylogenetic endemism)以及空间加权的进化特异性指数(biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness)尤其值得关注。中国特有植物分布格局的研究需要在以下4个方面进一步开展工作: (1)完善特有物种的分布格局研究; (2)加强物种的测序工作, 完善谱系多样性格局的分析; (3)结合系统发育信息, 揭示谱系多样性及进化历史的分布格局, 进而深入开展物种β多样性和谱系β多样性的研究; (4)加强物种分布区变化的模拟, 在时间维度上探讨特有现象的变化格局, 为生物多样性保护提供更完善的理论支持。

关键词: 生物多样性, 加权特有性, 谱系多样性, 进化多样性热点地区, 生物地理学, 分子系统学方法, 丰富度, 空间统计分析, 特有现象

Abstract

Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species β-diversity, and phylogenetic β-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

Key words: biodiversity, weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, evolutionary diversity hotspot, biogeography, molecular phylogeny, richness, spatial statistical analysis, endemism