生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (5): 454-460.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.454

所属专题: 生物多样性信息学专题(I)

• 生物多样性信息学专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家农作物种质资源平台的建立和应用

曹永生*(), 方沩   

  1. 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-21 接受日期:2010-07-27 出版日期:2010-09-20 发布日期:2010-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 曹永生
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: caoys@mail.caas.net.cn
  • 基金资助:
    农作物种质资源标准整理、整合及共享试点(2004DKA30380)

Establishment and application of National Crop Germplasm Resources Infrastructure in China

Yongsheng Cao**(), Wei Fang   

  1. Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2010-05-21 Accepted:2010-07-27 Online:2010-09-20 Published:2010-09-20
  • Contact: Yongsheng Cao*

摘要:

农作物种质资源是生物多样性的重要组成部分, 是作物育种和农业生产的物质基础。长期以来, 我国农作物种质资源标准不统一、资源保存相对分散、信息网络设施薄弱, 制约了农作物种质资源的共享利用。本文提出了国家农作物种质资源平台的概念和架构, 它是一个虚拟式的农作物种质资源机构, 由国家长期种质库、国家复份种质库、国家中期种质库、国家种质圃和国家种质信息中心组成。阐述了农作物种质资源技术规范体系构建的原则和方法, 建立了由110种作物的描述规范、数据规范和数据质量控制规范组成的技术规范体系。提出了以信息共享带动实物共享的思路、方法和途径, 建成了拥有39万份种质信息的国家农作物种质资源数据库和中国作物种质资源信息网(http://www.cgris.net/)。创建了日常性服务、展示性服务、针对性服务、需求性服务和引导性服务等5种农作物种质资源服务模式, 有效解决了农作物种质资源共享利用的难题。

关键词: 农作物, 种质资源, 数据库, 信息共享, 生物多样性

Abstract

Crop germplasm resources are a key component of biodiversity, and can serve as a material basis for crop breeding and agroproduction. For a long time, ununified standards, widely-scattered germplasm storage, and weak information network infrastructure have restricted the sharing and utilization of crop germplasm resources in China. In order to overcome these problems, the concept and architecture of a program called the National Crop Germplasm Resources Infrastructure (NCGRI) were proposed. The NCGRI is a virtual organization which brings together crop germplasm resources from the national long-term genebank, the national duplicate genebank, the national medium-term genebank, the national field genebank, and the national germplasm information center. The principles and methods for establishing a technical standard system were elaborated. Complete with descriptor lists, a data dictionary, and data quality control standards, the group established a technical standard system for 110 crops. A protocol for sample sharing that is driven by information sharing was put forward. The national crop germplasm resources database with 390,000 accessions and the Chinese Crop Germplasm Resources Information Network (http://www.cgris.net/) were established as repositories. Finally five service-modes including routine service, field display services, targeted services, demand for services, and guide services were created.

Key words: crop, germplasm resources, database, information sharing, biodiversity