生物多样性 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (3): 21426.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021426

所属专题: 传粉生物学 昆虫多样性与生态功能

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

天南星科植物的花多样性与传粉策略

刘德鑫1,2,3, 王青锋3, 杨春锋3,*()   

  1. 1.西藏大学青藏高原生态与环境研究中心, 拉萨 850000
    2.西藏大学理学院, 拉萨 850000
    3.中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-25 接受日期:2022-01-25 出版日期:2022-04-07 发布日期:2022-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 杨春锋
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: cfyang@wbgcas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)(XDB31010000)

Flower diversity and pollination strategy in Araceae

Dexin Liu1,2,3, Qingfeng Wang3, Chunfeng Yang3,*()   

  1. 1 Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000
    2 College of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000
    3 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
  • Received:2021-10-25 Accepted:2022-01-25 Online:2022-04-07 Published:2022-03-10
  • Contact: Chunfeng Yang

摘要:

天南星科植物具有特殊的佛焰苞花序及多样化的传粉策略, 是研究被子植物花的分化与动植物之间进化生态学联系的理想材料。本文简述了天南星科不同类型的花序结构及其传粉适应意义, 总结了天南星科传粉策略的基本类型与演化历史。天南星科的苞片结构主要包括原始型、外展平面型、直立宽佛焰苞型和直立狭佛焰苞4种类型, 呈现出从简单的片状与外展平面状结构向复杂的立体包裹状的佛焰苞结构演化的趋势。肉穗花序可分为两性花花序、单性花雌雄同序和单性花雌雄异序3种类型, 演化路线为两性花花序→单性花雌雄同序→单性花雌雄异序。天南星科的传粉者主要有鞘翅目、双翅目、膜翅目昆虫, 表现出5种主要传粉策略: 食物报酬型互利传粉、气味吸引型欺骗性传粉、交配场所型互利传粉、产卵场所型互利传粉和致死陷阱型欺骗性传粉。天南星科植物通过花序的形状、颜色、产热以及花部挥发物来吸引传粉者, 其中最主要的挥发物有二甲基硫化物、甲基吲哚化合物、萜类和苯类化合物, 模拟食物或产卵场所信号吸引鞘翅目甲虫和双翅目昆虫为其传粉。天南星科植物的佛焰苞被认为是促进该科物种分化的一个重要结构, 但该性状的演化历史及其与传粉系统分化之间的内在联系尚不明确。利用现代分子生物学技术以及模型模拟等手段, 结合生理生态学方法深入探究传粉事件与天南星科植物的花多样性以及物种分化之间的联系, 有望提升关于植物-传粉者互作与植物的花多样性分化之间关系的认识, 并丰富对被子植物多样性演化相关研究的理解。

关键词: 天南星科, 传粉, 花序结构, 花信号, 花部挥发物

Abstract

Aims: Diverse inflorescence forms, pollination strategies, and widespread deceptive pollination make the Araceae family a suitable research subject for plant-pollinator interactions and the effects of floral divergence. Elucidation of flower diversity and pollination strategy in Araceae by the previous studies enhanced our understanding in floral divergence making a firm foundation for this study. The present review aims to summarize the main types of inflorescence structure, spathe forms, pollination strategies, and their relationship in the plants of the family Araceae.

Progresses: There are four main types of spathes in Araceae: unmodified spathe, expanded planar spathe, erect broad spathe, and erect narrow spathe; demonstrating an evolutionary trend from simple planar structures to complex three- dimensional wrapped spathe structures. There are three types of spadix with the evolutionary route from bisexual flowering inflorescence to monoecious inflorescence, and to diecious inflorescence. The Araceae exhibits five major pollination strategies: food-rewards mutualistic pollination, odor-attracting deceptive pollination, mating sites mutualistic pollination, oviposition-attracting mutualistic pollination, and lethal trap deceptive pollination. The main types of pollinators include: Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Plants in the Araceae family attract pollinators by their unique shapes, colors, stripes, heat of the inflorescences, and most importantly floral scent. We comprehensively discussed the function of volatile organic compounds, among the most important volatiles being dimethyl sulfide, methyl indole compounds, terpenoids and benzene compounds that attract coleopteran beetles and Diptera to pollinate by simulating food or brood-site signals.

Prospects: Further study on the evolutionary ecology and developmental biology of Araceae is expected to provide reasonable explanation for maintenance and evolution of deceptive plant-pollinator relationships. Studies should increasingly focus on exploring the pattern of volatiles variation in species differentiation and the physiological relationship between volatiles and pollinators. Uncovering the complex relationships between floral diversity and pollination strategy in this family will greatly improve our understanding in its floral divergence and expand our knowledge in evolution of flower diversity in angiosperms.

Key words: Araceae, pollination, floral structure, floral signals, floral volatiles