生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (7): 833-841.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019350

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

桑寄生植物繁殖物候研究概述

李慢如1,2, 张玲1,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-06 接受日期:2020-01-25 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 张玲
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zhangl@xtbg.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31670393)

Overview of the reproductive phenology of mistletoes

Manru Li1,2, Ling Zhang1,*()   

  1. 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-11-06 Accepted:2020-01-25 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Ling Zhang

摘要:

桑寄生植物是一类自身可以进行光合作用的半寄生性灌木, 作为森林和林地的关键性资源可为鸟类等动物分类群提供重要的食物资源和巢址, 并影响当地的生物多样性。桑寄生植物隶属于檀香目, 包括5科88属约1,600种, 除极地、部分高寒和干旱沙漠地区外均有分布。桑寄生植物繁殖物候的研究对于了解“寄主植物-桑寄生植物-传粉/种子散布者系统”中物种相互作用网络的维持机制、生态系统结构的稳定性具有重要意义。本文综述了桑寄生植物在景观、群落和种群尺度上繁殖物候的表现类型, 发现桑寄生植物主要通过繁殖物候异步的方式延长物候期, 维持与传粉/种子散布者持久的互惠关系以保障自身种群的繁衍。该领域经过近年的发展, 已从单一地描述繁殖物候的表现类型到探究系统中寄主植物、传粉/种子散布者以及桑寄生植物自身生物学特性等因素的分析。通过前人的研究发现桑寄生植物繁殖物候对于该系统内相互作用的双方或多方有重要的适应意义, 今后首先应该对桑寄生植物的基础生物学背景进行研究, 然后还应加强实验验证, 进行多因素综合分析等来探讨桑寄生植物繁殖物候的生态学意义。

关键词: 桑寄生, 繁殖物候, 寄主植物, 传粉者, 种子散布者

Abstract:

Mistletoes are a polyphyletic group of hemi-parasitic shrubs that can conduct photosynthesis. As keystone resources, they provide important food resources and nest sites for many birds and other fauna in forests and woodlands, mediating local biodiversity. This group is comprised of 5 families, 88 genera and about 1,600 species within the Santalales and is broadly distributed across terrestrial ecosystems, absent only in some alpine, desert and polar areas. Research into the reproductive phenology of mistletoes is important for understanding the maintenance of species interaction networks in “host-mistletoe-pollinator/seed disperser” systems and the stability of ecosystem structure. We review the reproductive phenology of mistletoes at landscape, community, and population scales. We begin by describing different forms of mistletoe reproductive phenology, and continue by exploring the evolutionary and developmental drivers of host species, pollinator/seed disperser, and mistletoe biological characteristics. These studies indicate that long-lasting mutualisms between pollinators/seed dispersers and mistletoes are maintained mainly by asynchronous phenology of mistletoes in order to ensure their reproductive success. Previous studies found that the reproductive phenology of mistletoes had important adaptive significance to interacting species in “host-mistletoe-pollinator/seed disperser” systems. Future efforts should first prioritize basic biological research on mistletoes to fill important data gaps, and then couple experimental verification with comprehensive multi-factor analysis to strengthen our understanding of the ecological significance of mistletoe reproductive phenology.

Key words: mistletoes, reproductive phenology, host plants, pollinator, seed disperser