生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (12): 1673-1686.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021111

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态系统多功能性的指标选择与驱动因子: 研究现状与展望

黄小波1,2, 郎学东1,2, 李帅锋1,2, 刘万德1,2, 苏建荣1,2,*()   

  1. 1.中国林业科学研究院高原林业研究所, 昆明 650224
    2.国家林业和草原局云南普洱森林生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-23 接受日期:2021-08-15 出版日期:2021-12-20 发布日期:2021-11-12
  • 通讯作者: 苏建荣
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: jianrongsu@vip.sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国林业科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2020SY026);云南省基础研究计划项目(202101AT070236)

Indicator selection and driving factors of ecosystem multifunctionality: Research status and perspectives

Xiaobo Huang1,2, Xuedong Lang1,2, Shuaifeng Li1,2, Wande Liu1,2, Jianrong Su1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Highland Forest Science, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224
    2 Pu’er Forest Ecosytem Research Station, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2021-03-23 Accepted:2021-08-15 Online:2021-12-20 Published:2021-11-12
  • Contact: Jianrong Su
  • Supported by:
    CAFYBB2021ZA002

摘要:

全球变化和人类活动正以空前的速度在世界范围内改变着生物多样性, 这导致了全球生物多样性的锐减以及生产力的下降、病虫害的增加和抗入侵能力的减弱等生态问题。近30年来, 生态学家开始对于生物多样性的持续丧失是否以及如何影响生态系统功能的问题越来越感兴趣, 生物多样性与生态系统功能(biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, BEF)关系的研究应运而生, 并成为生态学研究的热点之一。但长期以来, 研究者更多地关注单一生态系统功能, 而忽略了生态系统能够同时提供多种生态系统功能的能力, 即生态系统多功能性(ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF)。本文综述了EMF研究中功能指标的选择、生物多样性的不同维度、微生物多样性对EMF的影响以及其他非生物因子对EMF的驱动等进展。因只考虑单一功能可能会低估生物多样性对整体生态系统功能的影响, 故生物多样性与生态系统多功能性(BEMF)关系的研究成为BEF关系研究的重点。近年来, BEMF关系的研究发展较快, 在不同生态系统(包括水生、草地、森林、旱地、农业等)、不同研究尺度(从区域到全球尺度)、BEMF关系的驱动机制(从单一驱动机制到多种驱动机制共同作用)、研究方法(包括新概念以及新的量化方法的提出和应用)等方面均取得了新的进展。但仍有不足之处, 如对于EMF研究中功能指标的选取没有统一的标准、对地下微生物多样性的关注度不够、涉及多营养级水平下的BEMF关系研究较少、驱动EMF的机制仍存在争论等。未来应加强对于功能指标选取的标准研究, 综合分析地上、地下生物多样性以及非生物因子对EMF的整体影响, 加强生态系统多服务性(ecosystem multiserviceability, EMS)方法的研究和应用。

关键词: 全球变化, 物种丧失, 物种丰富度, 功能多样性, 生态系统多功能性

Abstract

Background & Aims: Global change and other human activities are changing biodiversity around the world at an unprecedented rate, which has led to a sharp decline in global biodiversity and productivity, an increase in pests and diseases, and a weakening of the ability to resist invasion and other ecological problems. Ecologists became more and more interested in the question of whether and how the continuous loss of biodiversity would affect ecosystem functioning in the last 30 years. Therefore, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) became one of the hot topics of ecological research. For a long time, researchers have focused more on individual ecosystem functions than on the ability of an ecosystem to provide multiple ecosystem functions at the same time, known as ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF). Considering only individual functions could underestimate the impact of biodiversity on overall ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality (BEMF) has become the focus of BEF research field. In order to enrich the understanding of BEMF relationships, this paper focuses on different dimensions of biodiversity and the impact of microbial diversity on EMF, how abiotic factors drive EMF, as well as the selection of functional indicators in the evaluation of EMF.
Progresses: In recent years, the research on BEMF relationships has developed rapidly, expanding from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands, forests, drylands and agricultural ecosystems. Spatial scale ranges from regional scale to global scale. The driving mechanisms of BEMF relationship are explored from single dominant driving mechanism to multiple driving mechanisms. There are also new innovations in research methods and new concepts put forward.
Prospects: However, there are still some shortcomings. For example, there is no unified standard for the selection of functional indicators in EMF research, insufficient attention to microbial diversity, few studies on the BEMF relationship at the multitrophic level, and debate about the mechanisms driving EMF. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the criteria for the selection of functional indicators, comprehensively analyze the overall impact of aboveground and belowground biodiversity and abiotic factors on EMF, and strengthen the research and application of ecosystem multiserviceability (EMS).

Key words: global change, species loss, species richness, functional diversity, ecosystem multifunctionality