Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 55-.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015091

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• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality: advances and perspectives

Wei Xu1, Zhiyuan Ma1, Xin Jing1, Jin-Sheng He1, 2, *   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
  • Online:2016-06-12
  • He Jin-Sheng

As global biodiversity losses accelerate, there is increasing evidence shows that there may be negative impacts on ecosystem functioning, such as declines in plant primary productivity and imbalances in nutrient cycling. Thus, it is critical to understand the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). However, ecosystems can provide multiple functions simultaneously (ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF). Since 2007, the quantification of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality (BEMF) has generated additional questions and controversies, such as the lack of consensus in appropriate multifunctionality indices and uncertain trade-offs among ecosystem functions. In this review, we briefly summarize the history of BEMF studies and the methods of EMF quantification, then outline the mechanisms of EMF maintenance and current research progress. We emphasize the importance of optimizing EMF quantifications and investigating the relationship between different dimensions of biodiversity and EMF. We also provide suggestions and directions for future research on BEMF.

Key words: ecosystem functioning, species loss, multifunctionality indices, multiple functions

Table 1

Key references on biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality (BEMF)"

序号 No. 文献 References 备注 Remarks
1 Sanderson et al, 2004 首次提出多功能性的概念。This paper firstly defined multifunctionality.
2 Hector & Bagchi, 2007 第一次定量分析了生物多样性同时对多个生态系统过程的作用, 引发BEMF研究热潮。This paper first quantified the effects of biodiversity on multiple ecosystem processes, and evoked research climax of BEMF.
3 Gamfeldt et al, 2008 提出一个概念模型来探讨物种丧失对生态系统多个功能的影响; 证明多功能冗余比单功能冗余程度低。This paper proposed a conceptual model to address how species loss affects overall ecosystem functioning and demonstrated that multifunctional redundancy was generally lower than single functional redundancy.
4 Zavaleta et al, 2010 第一次在多个时间尺度上探讨生物多样性与生态系统多功能性的关系。This paper studied the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality at multiple temporal scales.
5 Isbell et al, 2011 评估生物多样性与生态系统多功能性的关系时, 第一次同时考虑了不同的时间、地点、功能和气候变化等因素。This study first considered multiple times, places, functions or climate change scenarios in the evaluations of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services.
6 Maestre et al, 2012b 第一次研究全球干旱地的植物物种丰富度和生态系统多功能性的关系。This paper first investigated the relationships between plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands at global scale.
7 Maestre et al, 2012a 第一次通过实验探讨关键群落属性(物种丰富度、群落物种组成、均匀度和空间格局)同时改变对生态系统多功能性的影响。This paper first investigated the effects of simultaneously changes in key community traits (e.g., species richness, community components, evenness, and spatial patterns) on ecosystem multifucatioality.
8 Pasari et al, 2013 第一次研究了多个尺度的生物多样性对生态系统多功能性的影响。This paper first studied the relationships between several scales of BEMF.
9 Byrnes et al, 2014a 利用BIODEPTH实验数据和R软件的multifunc程序包系统综述了当前BEMF研究中存在的问题, 首次提出多阈值法。This paper systematically reviewed the challenges and solutions in current BEMF studies and first quantified EMF with multiple threshold approach using data from the BIODEPTH experiment and the multifunc packages in R.
10 Wagg et al, 2014 通过改变土壤群落多样性实验, 提出土壤生物多样性和土壤群落组成决定生态系统多功能性。This study demonstrated that soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality by manipulating soil community biodiversity.
11 Perkins et al, 2015 第一次研究了变化环境下生物多样性与生态系统多功能性的关系。This paper first studied the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality in a changing environmental scenario.
12 Valencia et al, 2015 首次研究了功能多样性与生态系统多功能性的关系。This paper first studied the relationship between functional diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality.
13 Lefcheck et al, 2015 第一次系统分析了不同分类群、营养级和生境条件下生物多样性对生态系统多功能性的作用。This study presented the first systematic investigation of biodiversity’s effect on ecosystem multifunctionality across multiple taxonomy, trophic levels, and habitats.

Fig. 1

The relationship between species richness and ecosystem functioning changes with redundancy. (a) The effect of species loss on hypothetical communities. The solid line represents maximum loss in function if each species lost is the most efficient species of the ones remaining in the community (as we move from high to low species richness). The arrow and the dashed line indicate how the influence of species loss on ecosystem function shifts with changing redundancy. (b) A conceptual model of how the probability of maintaining overall functioning depends on both the number of functions and the degree of multifunctional redundancy across species. With some functional specialization, multiple functions will always be more susceptible to species loss than single functions. This susceptibility will increase with decreasing redundancy (Adopted from Gamfeldt et al, 2008)."

Fig. 2

Structural equation models (SEM) of climate, soil and biodiversity as predictors of ecosystem multifuncitonality (EMF), represented by two hypotheses: (a) plant species richness drives belowground biodiversity (soil biodiversity), and conversely, (b) belowground biodiversity drives plant species richness. Solid black arrows represent positive paths (P < 0.05, piecewise SEM), solid gray arrows represent negative paths (P < 0.05, piecewise SEM), and dotted gray arrows represent non-significant paths (P > 0.05, piecewise SEM). We report the path coefficients as standardized effect sizes. Overall fit of piecewise SEM is evaluated using Shipley’s test of d-separation: Fisher’s C statistic (if P > 0.05, then no paths are missing and the model is a good fit) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). MAP: Mean annual precipitation; MAT: Mean annual temperature; SM: Soil moisture; Plant SR: Plant species richness (Adopted from Jing et al, 2015)."

Fig. 3

The impacts of multiple biodiversity dimensionality on ecosystem multifunctionality under global change. The purple dashed box indicates current research focus while the red dashed box represents proposed future directions."

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[徐炜, 井新, 马志远, 贺金生 (2016) 生态系统多功能性的测度方法. 生物多样性, 24, 72-84.]
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(in Chinese with English abstract) [张全国, 张大勇 (2003) 生物多样性与生态系统功能: 最新的进展与动向. 生物多样性, 11, 351-363.]
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