生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1288-1294.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020490

• 生态系统原真性和完整性专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态系统原真性概念及评价方法: 以长白山地区为例

江南1,2, 徐卫华1,*(), 赵娟娟3, 肖燚1   

  1. 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3.西南大学园艺园林学院, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-31 接受日期:2021-06-25 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐卫华
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: xuweihua@rcees.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23080104);国家林草局-中国科学院国家公园研究院研究专项

Concept and assessment method of ecosystem authenticity: The case of Changbai Mountains area

Nan Jiang1,2, Weihua Xu1,*(), Juanjuan Zhao3, Yi Xiao1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
  • Received:2020-12-31 Accepted:2021-06-25 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Weihua Xu

摘要:

我国建立国家公园的主要目的是保护自然生态系统的原真性、完整性, 然而原真性的概念尚不明确, 评估方法亟待建立。本文尝试厘清原真性的概念, 讨论其在保护实践中的价值, 探究生态系统原真性的评价方法, 以期提升国家公园体制建设和自然保护地规划管理的科学性; 并以长白山地区为例, 基于森林清查数据, 从植被角度选取起源方式、优势树种、林龄和单位蓄积4项指标构建森林生态系统原真性评价指标体系, 建立权重系数、原真性值计算公式和等级划分标准。评价结果显示, 研究区域森林生态系统原真性值为0.69, 和龙市、安图县、抚松县、临江市和长白朝鲜族自治县分别为0.70、0.71、0.67、0.60和0.63。原真性从高到低5个等级的面积之比为9 : 44 : 33 : 11 : 3, 原真性高与极高的森林面积比例占53%, 空间分布呈现以长白山主峰为中心向东、北、西逐渐降低的趋势。建议基于对区域生态系统原生状态的全面了解, 加强不同尺度、组成要素的原真性指标体系及评价方法研究。

关键词: 原真性, 森林生态系统, 长白山, 国家公园

Abstract

Aims: National parks have recently been listed as protected areas in China's official documents to protect the authenticity and integrity of natural ecosystems. However, it is unclear how ecosystem authenticity is defined, let alone how to protect it. In this paper, we tried to define the concept of ecosystem authenticity, discuss its significance to conservation, and explore the assessment method to provide a scientific guide for the management and planning of protected areas.
Method: The study area is located in the center of Changbai Mountains where the most typical and well-preserved temperate mountain forest develops in Eastern Eurasia. We evaluated the forest ecosystems authenticity from the perspective of vegetation using forest inventory data of Jilin Province. Four indicators—forest origin, dominant tree, age of stand, unit stock volume—were selected to construct the authenticity assessment index system for forest ecosystems. At the same time, we established the weight coefficient, authenticity value calculation formula and grading standard.
Results: The forest ecosystem authenticity value of the whole study area was 0.69. The ecosystem authenticity values for Helong City, Antu County, Fusong County, Linjiang City and Korean Autonomous County of Changbai were 0.70, 0.71, 0.67, 0.60 and 0.63, respectively. Ecosystem authenticity is divided into five levels with an area ratio of 9 : 44 : 33 : 11 : 3 in order of authenticity from highest to lowest, indicating 53% are in very high and high levels. In general, the highest level of authenticity for the forest was in the main peak of Changbai Mountains, and gradually decreased going north, west, and south.
Conclusion: Ecosystem authenticity refers to the degree that an ecosystem from a particular region maintains its native state after various natural and human disturbances. It is convenient and generalizable to evaluate the authenticity of the forest ecosystem by using forest inventory data from the perspective of vegetation. Further research should give attention to the authenticity index system and the assessment method of different scales and components based on a comprehensive understanding of the primitive status of the ecosystem.

Key words: authenticity, forest ecosystem, Changbai Mountains, national park