生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 668-679.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020393

• 数据论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国牛科动物分布与种群现状: 基于文献计量数据

陈星1,2, 官天培1,*(), 蒋文乐2, 李丹丹2, 杨孔1, 李晟3,*()   

  1. 1.西南民族大学青藏高原研究院, 成都 610225
    2.绵阳师范学院, 四川绵阳 621000
    3.北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-09 接受日期:2021-02-09 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2021-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 官天培,李晟
  • 作者简介:shengli@pku.edu.cn
    * E-mail: tpguan@hotmail.com;
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31300319)

Distribution and population status of bovine species in China based on bibliometric analysis

Xing Chen1,2, Tianpei Guan1,*(), Wenle Jiang2, Dandan Li2, Kong Yang1, Sheng Li3,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610225
    2 Mianyang Teacher’s College, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000
    3 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2020-10-09 Accepted:2021-02-09 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-02-20
  • Contact: Tianpei Guan,Sheng Li

摘要:

牛科是哺乳纲中物种数量最多的有蹄类动物类群, 在全球广泛分布, 在陆地生态系统中具有重要的生态功能与作用。我国的牛科动物多样性较高, 据历史文献记载共有33种。然而, 自20世纪中期以来, 我国人口快速扩张, 社会经济高速发展, 对环境改造强度空前, 许多野生牛科动物的种群和栖息地受到了极大的影响。因此, 历史资料记载的物种分布是否依然符合现状, 至今未见系统和全面的评估, 不利于对我国动物资源情况的掌握和保护。为此, 我们系统检索并分析了2008年至今(2020年8月31日)在国内外公开发表的432篇学术论文, 以近年报道的红外相机调查结果为核心, 对28种牛科动物的分布以及15种牛科动物的种群现状进行了初步评估。经整理分析: (1)近年公开发表的研究显示, 中国目前有确凿分布证据的野生牛科动物有28种, 包括16种国家I级和11种国家II级重点保护野生动物, 涉及20个生物多样性优先保护区域。其中, 红鬣羚(Capricornis rubidus)属于中国新记录物种。(2)在省级区划层面, 记录到牛科动物物种数量最多的是西藏(n = 11)和甘肃(n = 11), 其次是新疆(n = 10)、青海(n = 7), 以及四川、内蒙古和云南(均为6种)。(3)分布省域最多的牛科动物是中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii, 省区, n = 16), 其次是中华斑羚(Naemorhedus griseus, n = 11)和岩羊(Pseudois nayaur, n = 8)。(4)据历史资料记载, 6种未见分布报道的牛科动物主要分布在西藏、新疆、云南, 分别是阿尔泰盘羊(Ovis ammon)、哈萨克盘羊(O. collium)、大额牛(Bos frontalis)、野水牛(B. arnee)、爪哇野牛(B. javanicus)和缅甸斑羚(Naemorhedus evansi)。(5)中华斑羚、赤斑羚(Naemorhedus baileyi)、中华鬣羚、岩羊、北山羊(Capra sibirica)、野牦牛(Bubalus arnee)在IUCN公布的分布区外有新分布记录, 建议及时修订和更新。本研究首次对中国牛科动物的分布以及种群现状进行了较客观和全面的评价, 为后续调查需要重点关注的物种和区域以及未来的研究提供参考。

关键词: 物种多样性, 偶蹄目, 有蹄类, 生物多样性监测, 物种编目, 优先保护区域

Abstract

Aims: Bovine species are the most abundant ungulates. They are widely distributed all over the world and are an important part of terrestrial ecosystems. According to historical records, there have 33 bovine species recorded in China. Since the mid 20th century, however, anthropogenic activities related to human population expansion and socio- economic development have dramatically transformed the environment, with a significant impact on the habitat of many bovine species in China. A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the distribution and status of bovine species in China is still lacking, which may halt bovine biodiversity conservation.
Method: We took advantage of fast-growing records of species distribution data and systematically searched related papers (n = 432) published in various academic journals between 2008 and August 31, 2020. We extracted relevant data that included study sites, species identified, and relative abundance, which allowed us to analyze and evaluate the distribution and population status of bovine species in China. We also used IUCN species distribution data and generated a heatmap of bovine species diversity in China.
Results: (1) There were 28 bovine species recorded in these papers including national levels I (n = 16) and II (n = 11) key protected animals, involving 20 priority conservation areas. Red serow (Capricornis rubidus) is a new record in China. (2) The bovine species diversity was found to be highest in Tibet and Gansu (n = 11), followed by Xinjiang (n = 10), Qinghai (n = 7), Sichuan (n = 6), Inner Mongolia (n = 6) and Yunnan (n = 6). (3) The most widely distributed species at the province level is Chinese serow (Capricornis milneedwardsii, n = 16), followed by Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus, n = 11) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, n = 8); (4) Six bovine species that lacked distribution and population data are mainly distributed in Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan, including Altai argali (Ovis ammon), Kazakhstan argali (Ovis collium), gayal (Bos frontalis), wild yak (Bos arnee), banteng (Bos javanicus) and Burmese goral (Naemorhedus evansi); (5) There are new distribution records on Chinese goral, red goral (Naemorhedus baileyi), Chinese serow, blue sheep, Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica) and wild yak (Bubalus arnee) outside the distribution range published by IUCN, which need timely revision and updated.
Conclusion: Our analysis provides an objective evaluation of distribution and population status of bovine species in China. Species that have been less studied or surveyed should be the priority of future conservation research. To better evaluate species distribution status, we strongly recommend that data holders publish or share any species distribution data obtained from recent regional surveys.

Key words: species diversity, Artiodactyla, ungulate, biodiversity monitoring, species inventory, priority protected areas