生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (7): 806-820.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020114

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

声景生态学研究进展和展望

赵莹1,2, 申小莉1,*(), 李晟3, 张雁云4, 彭任华5, 马克平1   

  1. 1 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    4 北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875
    5 中国科学院声学研究所噪声与振动重点实验室, 北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-11 接受日期:2020-08-28 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 通讯作者: 申小莉
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: xlshen@ibcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(XDA23080302)

Progress and outlook for soundscape ecology

Ying Zhao1,2, Xiaoli Shen1,*(), Sheng Li3, Yanyun Zhang4, Renhua Peng5, Keping Ma1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    4 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    5 Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
  • Received:2020-08-11 Accepted:2020-08-28 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Xiaoli Shen

摘要:

声景生态学以景观中的声音为研究对象, 探讨其在不同时空维度上的分布和变化模式, 从而揭示自然环境、野生动物和人类活动的相互作用关系。本文通过系统检索声景生态学研究的相关文献, 回顾了该学科的研究框架和研究方法, 总结了目前常用的声学指标, 重点归纳了声景生态学的研究内容, 包括声景组成和各组分间的相互作用, 声景的时空格局, 以及声景生态学在生物多样性监测中的应用。目前, 声景监测中存在的问题主要包括监测的生态系统类型和物种类群有限、声学指标效力有待提高等。建议未来着重推进建立系统性的声景监测网络和数据管理平台, 开发和完善音频数据采集、分析方法和评估指标, 并重视声景数据的采集, 将声景视作一种资源进行研究和保护。

关键词: 声景监测, 声学指标, 声学生态位, 生物多样性监测, 自动录音技术

Abstract:

Soundscape ecology studies sound patterns across different spatial and temporal scales, which reflects coupled natural-human dynamics in a changing landscape. Here, we synthesized a list of peer-reviewed studies on soundscape ecology to summarize the conceptual framework of the field, the methodology used, and acoustic indices developed from these studies. Studies on soundscape ecology are currently focused on the following aspects: (1) acoustic composition of soundscape; (2) acoustic interactions between soundscape components; (3) temporal patterns and spatial variability in the soundscapes; (4) the development of acoustic indices for biodiversity monitoring. We suggest the following as focuses for future studies in soundscape ecology and biodiversity conservation: (1) establishing a systematic acoustic monitoring network and data management platform; (2) developing new methods for data collection and analysis (e.g., recording matrix and machine learning algorithm); and (3) treating soundscape ecology as an important resource for future research and conservation.

Key words: soundscape monitoring, acoustic indices, acoustic niche, biodiversity monitoring, automated acoustic recording