生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1213-1221.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020100

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

滦河上游——白枕鹤西部种群的重要停歇地

郎雪敏1, Gankhuyag Purev-Ochir2, Oyunchimeg Terbish3, Dashdorj Khurelbaatar3, Baasansuren Erdenechimeg1, Amarkhuu Gungaa2, 宓春荣4, 郭玉民1,*()   

  1. 1 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院, 北京 100083, 中国
    2 蒙古鸟类保护中心, 乌兰巴托 14201, 蒙古
    3 蒙古东方省保护区管理局, 乔巴山 21060, 蒙古
    4 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室, 北京 100101, 中国
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-17 接受日期:2020-08-15 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 郭玉民
  • 作者简介:E-mail: guoyumin@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    北京市科学技术委员会资助项目(D171100007217002);科学技术部战略科技发展类引智项目(G20190001114)

Luan River upper reaches: The important stopover site of the white-naped crane (Grus vipio) western population

Xuemin Lang1, Gankhuyag Purev-Ochir2, Oyunchimeg Terbish3, Dashdorj Khurelbaatar3, Baasansuren Erdenechimeg1, Amarkhuu Gungaa2, Chunrong Mi4, Yumin Guo1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    2 Mongolian Bird Conservation Center, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia
    3 Eastern Mongolia Protected Areas Administration, Choibalsan 21060, Mongolia
    4 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-03-17 Accepted:2020-08-15 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Yumin Guo

摘要:

白枕鹤(Grus vipio)为国家II级重点保护野生动物, 被IUCN列为易危(VU)物种。白枕鹤西部种群繁殖于中蒙俄交界处的达乌尔地区, 数量呈下降趋势。我们于2017-2018年在蒙古国东部给白枕鹤西部种群的50只个体佩戴了GPS-GSM跟踪设备。截至2019年5月, 获得春季和秋季迁徙路径各48条。分析结果显示: 春季91.67%和秋季72.91%的跟踪个体在滦河上游(河北省沽源-内蒙古正蓝旗-多伦区域)停歇, 春季停留时间36.16 ± 15.00天、秋季20.26 ± 11.08天, 分别占春季和秋季迁徙时间的75%和67%, 确定了这一区域是西部种群迁徙途中最重要的停歇地。迁徙路线栖息地选择模型结果显示, 白枕鹤常在距离湖泊较近(< 210 km)、海拔1,200-1,500 m, 且坡度小(< 1°)的区域停歇。而滦河上游和整条迁徙路线停歇位点比较的模型结果显示, 滦河上游停歇地的海拔1,200-1,500 m与整条迁徙路线栖息地选择模型的结果一致; 此外这个区域离河流更近(< 70 km), 不仅有湿地和水体的栖息环境, 还有草地和农田可供觅食和栖息。保护空缺分析发现滦河上游现有四处保护地, 但在保护地内的迁徙停歇点不超过总位点的1.63%。综上, 我们建议将滦河上游整体纳入保护地体系进行管理, 为这一受胁物种及其栖息地管理和保护提供可靠保障。

关键词: 白枕鹤, 迁徙停歇地, 滦河上游, 卫星跟踪, 保护空缺

Abstract:

The white-naped crane (Grus vipio) is listed as a vulnerable species by the IUCN. The western population of white-naped cranes continues to decline. In 2017 and 2018, we fitted 50 individuals from the western population with GPS-GSM satellite transmitters in eastern Mongolia. From July 2017 to May 2019, we obtained 48 migration routes in spring and autumn, respectively. We found that during migrations, 91.67% (spring) and 72.91% (autumn) of tracked individuals chose the Luan River upper reaches (Guyuan-Zhenglanqi-Duolun) as their stopover site, where they stayed for 36.16 ± 15.00 days (75%) in the spring, and 20.26 ± 11.08 days (67%) in the autumn. Habitat selection model showed that water (specifically distance to lake) was the main environmental variable which affects the migration route choice for white-naped cranes. The cranes preferred the stopover site that was close to lake (< 210 km) and had gentle slopes (< 1°) at an altitude between 1,200-1,500 m. The Luan River upper reaches was close to river (< 70 km) and the altitude at 1,200-1,500 m is consistent with preffered migration routes. Additionally, there are large areas of grassland and farmland for foraging and roosting. We found that there were protected areas in the Luan River upper reaches, while no more than 1.63% of the migration stopover points were within these protected areas. From our results, we argue that Luan River upper reaches was the most important stopover site for the western population of white-naped crane. Unfortunately, the cranes in this area are not well protected based on their stopover points. Therefore, we highly recommend that the Luan River upper reaches should be included as part of a conservation management system. This will be beneficial for this threatened species.

Key words: white-naped crane, migratory stopover site, the Luan River upper reaches, satellite tracking, conservation gap