生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1087-1096.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021012

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖区麋鹿再野化初期秋冬季生境选择

夏昕1, 任静1, 李立2, 王海燕1, 宋玉成3, 杨道德1,*(), 蒋志刚4,5,*()   

  1. 1.中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所, 长沙 410004
    2.湖南省野生动物救护繁殖中心, 长沙 410116
    3.湖南东洞庭湖国家级自然保护区管理局, 湖南岳阳 414000
    4.中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    5.中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-09 接受日期:2021-05-19 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 杨道德,蒋志刚
  • 作者简介:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn
    * E-mail: csfuyydd@126.com;
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA19050204);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503303);湖南省野生动植物保护项目(HNYB2020-002)

Autumn-winter habitat selection by the re-wild Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) at the early stage after release in Dongting Lake Wetland, China

Xin Xia1, Jing Ren1, Li Li2, Haiyan Wang1, Yucheng Song3, Daode Yang1,*(), Zhigang Jiang4,5,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    2 Hunan Wildlife Rescue and Breeding Center, Changsha 410116
    3 Administration of Eastern Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve, Yueyang, Hunan 414000
    4 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    5 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2021-01-09 Accepted:2021-05-19 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-07-28
  • Contact: Daode Yang,Zhigang Jiang

摘要:

深入了解生境特征和生境选择的季节性差异是开展野生动物生境有效管理的前提。2016年3月, 原国家林业局和湖南省人民政府启动了麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)再野化项目, 来自江苏大丰的16头麋鹿(其中11头安装了GPS卫星跟踪颈圈)在湖南东洞庭湖国家级自然保护区君山后湖放归野外。冬季气候寒冷、食物匮乏, 濒危物种个体野放后能否在冬季找到适宜生境是再野化项目能否成功的关键。2016年10月至2017年1月, 借助GPS卫星和地面跟踪信息, 我们采用样方法对再野化麋鹿种群秋、冬季生境选择进行了研究, 测定了生境类型、食物丰富度、草本盖度、乔木盖度、距水源距离、距道路距离、距居民点距离、距隐蔽物距离、隐蔽级等9种生境因子。结果显示: (1)再野化麋鹿种群在秋、冬季对生境类型的选择差异极显著。冬季麋鹿偏好选择水塘、随机利用草本沼泽、避免利用灌草丛; 而秋季对生境类型无明显偏好。(2)再野化麋鹿秋冬季对食物丰富度、草本盖度、乔木盖度、距道路距离、距居民点距离、距隐蔽物距离和隐蔽级的选择差异极显著; 仅在距水源距离上的差异不显著。(3)秋季再野化麋鹿倾向于选择隐蔽级低、食物丰富度高、草本盖度高、距隐蔽物距离近的生境。其生境利用样方与对照样方在隐蔽级上的差异极显著; 在食物丰富度、草本盖度、距隐蔽物距离上的差异显著; 在距水源距离、乔木盖度、距道路距离、距居民点距离上的差异不显著。(4)冬季再野化麋鹿倾向于选择距水源近、食物丰富度高、草本盖度高的生境。其生境利用样方与对照样方在食物丰富度、草本盖度、距水源距离上的差异极显著; 在距道路距离、距居民点距离、距隐蔽物距离、隐蔽级上的差异不显著。研究结果揭示了洞庭湖区再野化麋鹿种群秋冬季生境选择偏好, 为再野化麋鹿种群保护及其生境修复提供了基础数据。

关键词: 麋鹿, 再野化, 物种重引入, 生境选择, 卫星跟踪

Abstract

Purpose: For restoring the once extinct Milu (Elaphurus davidianus, Père David's deer), the wild management authority in China launched a Milu rewilding project in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province, China in 2016. We carried the study to investigate how the re-wild Milu select habitat in the field release area in autumn and winter.

Method: In March 2016, 16 Milu individuals (11 of them fitted with GPS collars) from the Jiangsu Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve were released into the wild of Junshan Houhu in Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve. From October 2016 to January 2017, with the aid of GPS satellite tracking and ground tracking of field released Milu, we used the quadrat method to study the autumn/winter habitat selection by the released Milu. Nine habitat variables were measured in the both Milu-used quadrats and non-used quadrats: habitat type, food abundance, herbage coverage, arbor coverage, distance to water, distance to road, distance to human settlement, distance to shelter, and hidden level.

Results: (1) There was a significant difference in the selection of habitat types by the re-wild Milu between autumn and winter. In autumn, the re-wild Milu appeared to select habitat randomly, whereas they preferred the habitats near ponds and used the herbage swamp randomly, avoiding shrub-grass habitats. (2) There were significant differences in selection for food abundance, herbage coverage, arbor coverage, distance to road, distance to human settlement, distance to shelter, and the hidden level by the re-wild Milu between autumn and winter. There was no significant difference in selection for distance to water. (3) In autumn, the re-wild Milu preferred those habitats that of lower hidden level, higher food abundance, higher herbage coverage, and closer to shelter. There was a significant difference in hidden levels between used quadrats and control (non-used) quadrats in both seasons. Additionally, there were significant differences in the selection for food abundance, herbage coverage, and distance to shelter overall. There were no significant differences in the selection of distance to water, arbor coverage, distance to road, and distance to human settlement. (4) In winter, the re-wild Milu preferred those habitats that are closer to water, with higher food abundance, or higher herbage coverage. There were significant differences in food abundance, herbage coverage, and distance to water between used quadrats and non-used quadrats, but there were no significant differences in distance to road, distance to human settlement, distance to shelter, or hidden level.

Conclusion: The study revealed the differences in habitat selection by the re-wild Milu in autumn and winter, which provide baseline data for habitat management of Milu rewilding in the wetlands of Dongting Lake.

Key words: Milu (Elaphurus davidianus), Père David's deer, rewilding, species reintroduction, habitat selection, satellite tracking