生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 123-128.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020073

• 论坛 • 上一篇    

国家公园最严格保护的实现路径

闫颜1, 唐芳林1,*(), 田勇臣2, 金崑3   

  1. 1.国家林业和草原局国家公园规划研究中心, 昆明 650216
    2.国家林业和草原局竹子研究开发中心, 杭州 310012
    3.中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-13 接受日期:2020-09-30 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-10-10
  • 通讯作者: 唐芳林
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: 4aces@sina.com

On implementation path of the strictest conservation policies in national park management

Yan Yan1, Fanglin Tang1,*(), Yongchen Tian2, Kun Jin3   

  1. 1 Plan and Research Center for National Park, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Kunming 650216
    2 China National Bamboo Research Center, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Hangzhou 310012
    3 Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2020-05-13 Accepted:2020-09-30 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-10-10
  • Contact: Fanglin Tang

摘要:

国家公园是我国自然保护地最重要的类型之一, 属于全国主体功能区规划中的禁止开发区域, 纳入全国生态保护红线区域管控范围, 实行最严格保护。对国家公园实行最严格保护具有重要意义, 但在国家公园理论研究和具体管理实践中, 严格保护并未被准确理解。作为一种新型自然保护地类型的国家公园, 其功能定位、保护管理理念和方式区别于其他自然保护地, 对国家公园实行严格保护也要与国家公园这些特殊的功能定位和特别的保护管理理念、管理方式相结合。本文系统分析了国家公园最严格保护的提出背景和过程, 探讨了如何全面准确理解最严格保护及其重要意义, 在此基础上, 提出对国家公园实行最严格保护的实现路径, 包括理顺管理体制、健全法制保障、强化监督管理、强化协同管理、规范特许经营、完善社会参与、加强教育培训等七个方面, 包含实行中央直管、明确央地事权、落实资金保障、完善法律法规、实行综合执法等23项具体策略。

关键词: 国家公园, 严格保护, 实现路径

Abstract

Background: As a new type of protected area, national parks are different from other protected areas in function and how they are protected and managed. Combination of these differences for the strictest conservation and management of national parks should be considered. Here, we analyze the background and reasons behind the strict conservation policies for national parks and discuss how to correctly understand their significance. The implementation path of the strictest conservation policy of national parks are shared here.
Aims: National parks are the most important type of the protected area in China. National parks belong to the forbidden development area, which are included in the national ecological redline, and are strictly conserved. Strict conservation of national parks is important, but has not been accurately understood in the theoretical research and specific management practices for national parks.
Suggestion: There are seven major aspects to the strict conservation policies of national parks, including improvement in the management system, improving the legal system guarantee, strengthening supervision and collaborative management, standardizing franchise management, improving social participation, strengthening education and training, which incorporate 23 specific management strategies. These management strategies include: implementing the vertical administration system, clarifying the power between central and local authorities and capital guarantee, establishing a scientific and perfect legal system, implementing comprehensive law enforcement and having strict law enforcement.

Key words: national park, strict conservation, implementation path