生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 480-490.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018227

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境DNA技术在淡水底栖大型无脊椎动物多样性监测中的应用

李萌1,尉婷婷1,史博洋1,郝希阳1,徐海根2,孙红英1,*()   

  1. 1 南京师范大学生命科学学院江苏省生物多样性与生物技术重点实验室, 南京 210023
    2 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-17 接受日期:2018-12-27 出版日期:2019-05-20 发布日期:2019-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 孙红英
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项

Biodiversity monitoring of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates using environmental DNA

Li Meng1,Wei Tingting1,Shi Boyang1,Hao Xiyang1,Xu Haigen2,Sun Hongying1,*()   

  1. 1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-08-17 Accepted:2018-12-27 Online:2019-05-20 Published:2019-05-20
  • Contact: Sun Hongying

摘要:

环境DNA (eDNA)是指生物有机体在环境中(例如土壤、沉积物或水体)遗留下的DNA片段。eDNA技术是指从环境中提取DNA片段进行测序以及数据分析来反映环境中的物种或群落信息。与传统方法相比, eDNA技术具有高灵敏度、省时省力、无损伤等优点。目前, eDNA技术已成为一种新的水生生物监测方法, 主要应用于水生生物的多样性研究、濒危和稀有动物的物种状态及外来入侵动物扩散动态的监测等。本文从eDNA技术在水生生物多样性监测应用领域的发展历程、eDNA技术的操作流程以及其在监测淡水底栖大型无脊椎动物方面的应用进展、技术优势和局限性五个方面进行了综述。最后, 本文对eDNA技术在淡水底栖大型无脊椎动物多样性监测应用的发展趋势和前景作出展望。

关键词: 宏条形码, 第二代测序技术, 外来入侵物种, 淡水生态系统, 细胞色素c氧化酶亚基I (COI)

Abstract

Environmental DNA (eDNA) refers to DNA fragments that organisms leave behind in their surrounding environment (such as soil, sediment and water). eDNA technology sequences these DNA fragments and can provide information on taxonomic composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Compared with traditional biological survey methods, eDNA technology is more sensitive, efficient and noninvasive. As a novel method for surveying aquatic organisms, eDNA techniques have been widely used in biodiversity assessments of aquatic organisms, including monitoring of endangered, rare and invasive species. In this review, we summarize recent developments in eDNA technology and focus primarily on the operational procedure and its application for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate analyses. Finally, we discuss the advantages and potential caveats of current eDNA practices.

Key words: metabarcoding, next-generation sequencing, invasive species, freshwater ecosystem, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)