生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1180-1189.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018167

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

凉山山系大熊猫和黑熊适宜生境预测及重叠分析

和梅香1, 陈俪心1, 罗概1, 古晓东2, 王戈3, 冉江洪1,*()   

  1. 1 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
    2 四川省野生动物资源调查保护管理站, 成都 610081
    3 四川九顶山省级自然保护区什邡管理站, 什邡 618400
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-13 接受日期:2018-09-03 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2019-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 冉江洪
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家林业局国际合作资金([2017]115)

Suitable habitat prediction and overlap analysis of two sympatric species, giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains

Meixiang He1, Lixin Chen1, Gai Luo1, Xiaodong Gu2, Ge Wang3, Jianghong Ran1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    2 Sichuan Station of Wild Life Survey and Management, Chengdu 610081
    3 Shifang Monitoring Station of Jiuding Mountain Provincial Nature Reserve of Sichuan, Shifang, Sichuan 618400
  • Received:2018-06-13 Accepted:2018-09-03 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2019-01-08
  • Contact: Ran Jianghong
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

研究同域物种的分布格局及重叠状况对物种的区域整合保护管理及区域生物多样性保护具有重要实践价值。本研究基于全国第四次大熊猫调查及长期野外调查数据, 利用MaxEnt模型预测了凉山山系两种同域分布的熊科动物——大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)和黑熊(Ursus thibetanus)的适宜生境, 基于适宜生境预测结果, 分析了两个物种的生境需求因子、生境破碎化现状及重叠状况。结果显示: (1)大熊猫和黑熊的适宜生境分布格局相似, 主要分布在凉山山系的山脊地带, 适宜生境面积分别为1,383.84 km2和2,411.49 km2; (2)两个物种的适宜生境都较为破碎, 且存在一些隔离分布区, 相较而言, 黑熊适宜生境的连通性要优于大熊猫; (3)两个物种生态位重叠度较高(D = 0.654, I = 0.901), 适宜生境重叠面积为958.29 km2, 分别占大熊猫和黑熊适宜生境总面积的69.25%和39.74%; (4)两个物种对环境因子的选择和响应表现出了相似性和差异性。相似性在于对两个物种生境分布影响最大的两个因子均为距居民点距离和海拔; 差异性在于对大熊猫生境分布影响次之的因子是植被类型和最冷季均温, 而黑熊的是年最大EVI指数和距道路距离。为了更有效地保护两个物种, 应加强对人类干扰的控制和植被的恢复, 对栖息地实行连通管理, 并建立多物种保护规划。

关键词: 大熊猫, 黑熊, MaxEnt, 保护, 同域分布, 凉山山系

Abstract:

Understanding spatial distribution and habitat overlap of sympatric species is essential to developing integrated policies for conserving species and regional biodiversity. This study combined data from the 4th National Survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and long-term field survey. We used the Maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to predict the distributions of two sympatric bears, the giant panda and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains. Based on spatial distribution of two species, we measured habitat fragmentation and spatial overlap of habitat use, and assessed environmental requirements of both species. Our results indicated that: (1) both species had similar distributions of suitable habitats, both were mainly distributed on the ridges of Liangshan Mountains. The suitable habitat area of giant panda and black bear were 1,383.84 km2 and 2,411.49 km2, respectively. (2) The habitats of both species were fragmented and separated into many patches. However, habitat connectivity for the black bear was better than for giant panda. (3) Niche overlap indices, calculated by ENMTools, showed that two species have high overlap in their ecological niche (D = 0.654 and I = 0.901). The overlapping habitat comprised 958.29 km2 of the study area, which contained 69.25% of giant panda habitat and 39.74% of black bear habitat. (4) We used permutation techniques to estimate the importance of environmental variables in the MaxEnt model. Distance to residents and altitude were the most influential predictors for both species. Vegetation types and mean temperature of coldest quarter were the third and fourth important predictor for giant panda, while annual maximum enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and distance to roads was important for the black bear. To protect these two species more effectively, a series of measures have to be adopted, such as strengthening vegetation restoration, controlling disturbance, and enhancing connectivity between habitat patches. We recommend that a systematic, multi-species conservation plan should be developed.

Key words: giant panda, Asiatic black bear, MaxEnt, conservation, sympatry, Liangshan Mountains