生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 636-644.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017315

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

Bt基因抗虫作物对非靶标害虫的影响

关正君1, 鲁顺保2, 霍艳林3, 郝浩永3, 曹建斌1, 魏伟4,*(), 刘标5,*()   

  1. 1 运城学院生命科学系, 山西运城 044000
    2 江西师范大学生命科学学院, 南昌 330022
    3 运城学院理科实验中心, 山西运城 044000
    4 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    5 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-04 接受日期:2018-04-17 出版日期:2018-06-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 魏伟,刘标
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    环保公益性行业科研专项课题(201509044)、国家自然科学基金(31560168, 31771731)、山西省“1331”工程重点学科项目(098-091704)、山西省自然科学基金(201701D121089)和运城学院博士科研启动项目(YQ-2014022)

Effects of Bt crops on non-target insect pests

Zhengjun Guan1, Shunbao Lu2, Yanlin Huo3, Haoyong Hao3, Jianbin Cao1, Wei Wei4,*(), Biao Liu5,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000
    2 College of Biosciences, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022
    3 Science Experimental Center, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000
    4 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    5 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2018-04-04 Accepted:2018-04-17 Online:2018-06-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Wei Wei,Liu Biao
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

转基因作物的长期大面积种植, 在为农业生产带来惠益的同时, 对农业生态系统的健康和稳定可能会产生潜在的影响。转基因作物表达的Bt蛋白对靶标害虫起到较好的控制效果, 而对Bt蛋白不敏感的非靶标害虫种群可能会迅速发展起来, 对作物造成为害。随着抗虫转基因作物的连续多年种植, 科学家们对于田间杀虫剂施用量的增减看法不尽一致。通过总结已有的研究报道, 本文以Bt玉米和Bt棉花为例, 分析了大田中非靶标害虫暴发的现状, 以及暴发的主要原因(如杀虫剂的使用、害虫天敌减少和物种替代)。在生产实践中, 抗虫作物的长期大面积释放导致广谱杀虫剂施用量减少, 田间非靶标害虫数量上升。因此今后需要继续开展更多的研究来综合评估种植转Bt基因作物产生的长期潜在影响, 优化害虫防治措施, 避免非靶标害虫暴发。

关键词: 抗虫, Bt作物, 非靶标害虫, 暴发, 风险评价

Abstract

The long-term large-scale planting of genetically modified (GM) crops may have potential impacts on the health and stability of agricultural ecosystems while benefitting agricultural production. Bt proteins expressed in Bt crops have a good control on target pests. However, non-target insects that are not susceptible to Bt toxins may have increased populations rapidly, causing significant damage to crops. With the long-term continued cultivation of insect-resistant GM crops, different reports and views on the amounts of pesticide applications have been reported. Based on existing research, we reviewed the characteristics and status of non-target insect pest outbreaks and analyzed the main causes of the outbreaks (such as insecticide use, decrease of natural enemies, and species replacement). In addition, we discussed the effects of GM crops on non-target pests over long-term cultivation using Bt corn and cotton as examples. Given the existing problems of non-target insect outbreaks due to commercial applications of Bt crops, further studies on monitoring the efficacies of insect-resistant GM crops are necessary to prevent outbreaks of non-target pests needed for sustainable agriculture.

Key words: insect-resistanceBt crops, non-target pests, outbreak, risk assessment