生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 437-448.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016295

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

保护区与社区如何协调发展: 以广西十万大山国家级自然保护区为例

孙润1, 王双玲1,*(), 吴林巧1, 安辉2, 覃世赢1, 刘有军2, 谭伟福1   

  1. 1 广西壮族自治区林业勘测设计院, 南宁 530028
    2 广西十万大山国家级自然保护区管理局, 广西防城港 538001;
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-12 接受日期:2017-02-07 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 王双玲
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 广西自然科学基金(2013GXNSFBA019119)希望保护区支持的优先发展项目

How to balance development between nature reserves and community: a case study in Shiwandashan National Nature Reserve, Guangxi

Run Sun1, Shuangling Wang1,*(), Linqiao Wu1, Hui An2, Shiying Qin1, Youjun Liu2, Weifu Tan1   

  1. 1 Guangxi Forestry Inventory & Planning Institute, Nanning 530028;
    2 Guangxi Shiwandashan National Nature Reserve Administrative Bureau, Fangchenggang, Guangxi 538001
  • Received:2016-10-12 Accepted:2017-02-07 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20
  • Contact: Wang Shuangling

摘要:

协调自然保护区与社区的关系, 需要了解社区的发展特点与意愿诉求。2014年9-11月, 我们对广西十万大山国家级自然保护区涉及的151个自然屯进行了调查。调查采用半结构式访谈和关键人物访谈法, 结合文献法、季节历、市场调查分析、参与式山林考察、社区需求分析等方法, 并于2015年开展了深入保护区内社区农户的精准扶贫调查作为补充。根据调查, 得出以下结论: (1)社区是少数民族聚居区, 以林地资源为主, 对保护区资源依赖程度较强, 基础设施整体发展不足, 市场化水平不高, 缺乏发展资金; (2)社区发展意愿多样, 但依然集中在生存需求方面; (3)社区对保护区的诉求主要表现在基础设施建设以及森林资源利用方面。本研究根据目前社区所处的发展阶段, 结合保护区面临的威胁、发展策略以及生物资源分布特征等, 从优先关注区域、关注人群、关注项目等方面探讨了保护区与社区协调发展途径, 并给出发展项目建议, 包括栖息地恢复与人工林生态改造、社区生计替代相结合, 提高生态公益林补助, 重点关注与落实保护区内分布社区的发展意愿与行为诉求, 丰富社区发展内涵等, 同时建立社区共管委员会、开展人员培训与自然保护宣传教育。本项研究探讨了在开展社区工作初期时的工作方法与内容, 并建议下一步可向微观与宏观两个方向发展, 即建立村级、家庭的和谐指标评价体系和联合一切可以联合的相关利益群体做好社区工作的法制化与标准化, 保护区与社区产生良好的社会效应。这种思路对自然保护区其他方面的建设管理也具有借鉴意义。

关键词: 自然保护区, 社区, 人口因素, 行为, 发展意愿, 协调发展

Abstract

In order to balance development, nature reserves, and community, it is necessary to understand community characteristics and willingness. Between September and November of 2014, we surveyed infrastructure, demographic factors, economic activity, development willingness, and the demands of all 151 concerned resident sites of the Shiwandashan National Nature Reserve in Guangxi. Methods included semi-structured interviews, key people interviews complemented with a literature review, seasonal calendars, market surveys, participatory forest surveys, and community demand interviews. In 2015, we carried out focused complementary investigations on the communities located in the nature reserve. Results on the characteristics of the communities of the Shiwandashan reserve included minority culture, forest-based land utilization, high dependence on natural resources, less infrastructure development, low market accessibility, and minimal financial resources for development. There were diverse perspectives on community development, but almost all focused on subsistence needs. The demands of the communities for the nature reserve mainly included infrastructure development and forest resources use. Holistically, topics including considering the community status, threats faced by the nature reserve, development strategy of the nature reserve, species and vegetation distributions, prioritized working areas, focused communities, and urgent activities were discussed and then, suggestions were given based on the research. Specific measures included developing forest restoration and ecological compensation in priority areas, to meet the demands of the communities located in the nature reserve and realize ecological immigration if possible and establishing some projects on infrastructure construction, community culture development, and building the local brand. Meanwhile, it is necessary to establish co-management institutions, provide training to community residents and nature reserve staff and to strengthen publicity and education. This study provides some suggestions on methods and contents of community work during its primary phase and future directions were also discussed including at the micro-level (establishing an indicator system to estimate village or family status) and at the macro-level (achieving good effects of community development by legal and standard construction and allied stakeholders) which is also significant for other aspects of nature reserve management.

Key words: nature reserve, community, demographic factor, behavior, development willingness, harmonious development