生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 398-407.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015068

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生态物种形成及其研究进展

吕昊敏, 周仁超, 施苏华*()   

  1. 中山大学生命科学学院, 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-22 接受日期:2015-05-08 出版日期:2015-06-09 发布日期:2015-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 施苏华
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41130208;91331202;31170213;91231106)

Recent advances in the study of ecological speciation

Haomin Lyu, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi*   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275
  • Received:2015-03-22 Accepted:2015-05-08 Online:2015-06-09 Published:2015-06-12
  • Contact: Shi Suhua

摘要:

物种形成是基本的进化过程, 也是生物多样性形成的基础。自然选择可以导致新物种的产生。生态物种形成是指以生态为基础的歧化选择使不同群体分化产生生殖隔离的物种形成过程。本文首先回顾了生态物种形成的研究历史, 并详细介绍了生态物种形成的3个要素, 即歧化选择的来源、生殖隔离的形式以及关联歧化选择与生殖隔离的遗传机制。歧化选择的来源主要包括不同的环境或生态位、不同形式的性选择, 以及群体间的相互作用。生殖隔离的形式多种多样, 我们总结了合子前和合子后隔离的遗传学机制以及在生态物种形成中起到的作用。控制适应性性状的基因与导致生殖隔离的基因可以通过基因多效性或连锁不平衡相互关联起来。借助于第二代测序技术, 研究者可以对生态物种形成的遗传学与基因组学基础进行研究。此外, 本文还总结了生态物种形成领域最新的研究进展, 包括平行进化的全基因组基础, 以及基因流影响群体分化的理论基础。通过归纳比较由下至上和由上至下这两种不同的研究思路, 作者认为这两种思路的结合可以为生态物种形成基因的筛选提供更有力也更精确的方法。同时, 作者还提出生态物种形成的研究应该基于更好的表型描述以及更完整的基因组信息, 研究的物种也应该具有更广泛的代表性。

关键词: 生态物种形成, 生态因素, 歧化选择, 生殖隔离, 基因组学, 平行进化, 基因流

Abstract

Speciation is a basic evolutionary process, which plays a fundamental role in the formation of biodiversity. Ecological speciation refers to the process by which barriers to gene flow evolve between populations as a result of ecologically-based divergent selection. In spite of the continual accumulation of experimental and theoretical evidence, our understanding of ecological speciation remains incomplete. In this review, we first briefly introduce the history of research on ecological speciation and focus on its three components: a source of divergent selection, a form of reproductive isolation, and a genetic mechanism linking the two. Sources of divergent selection include differences in environment or niche, certain forms of sexual selection, and the ecological interaction of populations. There are various barriers of reproductive isolation, and we summarize pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolation mechanisms and their roles in ecological speciation. Pleiotropy and linkage disequilibrium are the two mechanisms to link divergent selection and reproductive isolation. The applications of next generation sequencing technologies have contributed greatly to the research of gene and genome based ecological speciation. In addition, we review the recent advances in ecological speciation understanding, including the genomic basis of parallel evolution and the theories of speciation-with-gene-flow. By comparison of up-down strategy and down-up strategy, we put forward that the combination of these ideas which can provide more powerful and precise methods to find the ecological speciation genes. More detailed phenotypic description and more complete genomic information, as well as more representative species can facilitate greater exploration of ecological speciation.

Key words: ecological speciation, ecological factor, divergence selection, reproductive isolation, genomics, parallel evolution, gene flow